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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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comparison of biological and adoptive relatives with and without a given disorder to assess genetic versus environmental influences
adoption method
genetic research strategy comparing frequency of certain genetic markers known to be located on particular chormosomes in people with and without a particular disorder
association studies
contemporary psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of early experience with attanchment relationships in laying the foundation for later functioning throught life
attachment theory
process of assinging causes to things that happen
attributions
field that studies the heritabilty of mental disorders and other aspects of psychological functioning such as personailty and intelligence
behavior genetics
a viewpoint that acknowledges the interacting roles of biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors in the orgnins of psychopathology
biopsychosocial viewpoint
as postulated by Freud, the anxiety a young boy experiences when he desires his mother while at the same time fearing that his father may harm him by cutting his penis, this anxiety forces the boy to repress his sexual desire for his mother and his hostility towards his father
castration anxiety
chain-like structures within cell nucleus that contain genes
chromosomes
a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that naturally elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After repated pairings, the netural stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that elicits a conditioned response (CR)
classical conditioning
a theory of abnormal behavior that focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior
cognitive-behavioral perspective
the percentage of twins sharing a disorder or trait
concordance rate
a condition that increases the probabilty of developing a disorder but that is neither necessary nor sufficient for it to occur
contributory cause
human stress homrone relases by the cortex of the adrenal glands
cortisol
field of psychology that focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in the developmental process by compaing and contrasting it with normal and expected changes that occur
developmental psychopathology
acknowledgement that genetic activity influences neural activity, which in turn influences behavior, which in turn influences the enviornment, and that these influences are bidirectional
developmental systems approach
view of abnormal behavior as the result of stress opertaing on an individual who has biolgical, psychosocial, or sociocultural predisposition to developing a specific diorder
diathesis-stress models
ability to interpret and respond differently to two or more similar stimuli
discrimination
in psychoanalytic theory, the reational part of the personality that mediates between the demands of the id, constraints of the superego, and the realities of the external world
ego
psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the ego- the "exexutive branch of the personality" in organizing normal personality development
ego psychology
psychic mechanisms that discharge or soothe anziety rather than coping direclty with an anxiety-provoking situations; usually unconscious and reality-distorting. Also called defense mechanisms
ego-defense mechanisms
excessive emotional attachment (love) of a daughter for her father, the feamle counterpart of the Oedipus complex
electra complex
causual pattern of abnormal behavior
etiology
gradual disapperance of a conditioned response when it is no longer reinforced
extinction
behavior genetic research strategy that examines the incidence of disorder in relatives of an index case to determine whether incidence increases in proportion to the degree of the hereditary relationship
family history (or pedigree) method
tendency of a reponse that has been conditioned to one stimulus to be elicited by other, similar stimuli
generalization
long molecules of DNA that are present at various locations on chromosomes and that are responsible for the transmission of hereditary trairs
genes
a person's total genetic endowment
genotype
gentoypic vulnerability that can shape a child's environmental experiences
genotype-environment correlation
differential sensistivity or susceptibility to their enviornments by people who have different genotypes
genotype-environment interaction
chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands that regulate development of and activity in various parts of the body
horomones
brain-endorcine system involved in reponding to stress in which the hypothalamus and pituitary send messages to the adrenal glad which releases a stress hormone that feeds back on the hypothalamus
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical axis
in psychoanalytic theory, the reservoir of insinctual drives and the first structure to appear in infancy
id
reinforcement of a subject for making a correct reesponse that leads either to receipt of something rewarding or to escape from something unpleasant
instrumental (or operant) conditioning
approach to understanding abnormal behavior that views much of psychopathology as rooted in the unforunate tendences we develop while dealing with our interpersonal enviornments, it thus focuses on our relationships, past and present, with other people
interpsonal persepctive
inner mental struggles resulting from interply of the id, ego, and superego when the three subsystems are striving for different goals
intrapsychic conflicts
in psychoanalytic theory, a term used to describe the insinctual drives of the id; the basic constructive energy of life, primarily sexual in nature
libido
genetic research strategy in which occurrence of a disorder in an extended family is comparted with that of genetic marker for physical characteristic or biolgical process that is known to be located on a particular chromosome
linkage analysis
a condition that must exist for a diorder to occur
necessary cause
chemical substances that are realses into a synapse by the presynaptic neuron and which transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
neurotransmitters
in psychoanalytic theory, this viewpoint focuses on an infant or young child's interactions with "objects" that is real or imageing people, as well as how they make symbolic representations of important people in their lives
object relations theory
learning through observation alone without directly experiencing an unconditioned stimulus (for classical condintioning) or a reinforcement (for instrument conditioning)
observational learning
desire for sexual relations with a parent of opposite sex; specifcally the desire of a boy for his mother, with his father a hated rival
oedipus complex
the observed structural and functional characteristics of aperson that result from interaction between the genotype and the environment
phenotype
endocrine gland associated with many regulatory functions
pituitary gland
demand that an instinctual need be immediately gratified, regarless of reality or moral considerations
pleasure principle
gratification of id demands by meaning of imagery or fantasy without the ability to undertake the realistic actions needed to meet those instinctual demands
primary process thinking
influences that modify a person's response to an enviornmental stressor, making is less likely that the person will expereince the adverse effects of the stressor
protective factors
according toe Freudian theory, there are five stages of psychosexual develpment, each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving sexual pleasure; the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stange, and the genital stage
psychosexual stages of development
awareness of the demands of the nevironment and adjustment of behavior to meet these demands
reality principle
the process of rewarding desired responsed
reinforcement
the ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances
resilence
an underlying representation of knowledge that guides current proessing of information and often leads to distortions in attention, memory, and comprehension
schema
reality-oriented rational processes of the ego for dealing with the external world and the exercise of control over id demands
secondary process thinking
our views of what we are, what we might becomes, and what is important to us
self-schema
the return of a learned response at some time after extinction has occurred
spontanewous recovery
a condtion that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder
sufficent cause
conscience; ethical or moral dimensions (attitudes) of personality
superego
site of communication from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuorn- a tiny filled spaced between neurons
synapse
pattern of emotinoal and arousal responses and characteristic ways of self-regulation that are considered to be primarily hereditary and consitutional
tempertament
the use of identical and nonidentical twins to study genetic influences on abnormal behavior
twin method
time taken for the level of an active drugs or medication in the body to be reduced to 50% of the original level
half-life
medication that alleviate or diminish the intensity of psychotic sympotoms such as hallucinations or delusions
antipsychotic drugs
neurological disorder resulting from excessive use of antipsychotic drugs. Side effects can occur months to years after treatment has been initiated or has stopped. The symptoms involve involuntary movement of the tongue, lips, jaw, and extremities
tardive dyskinesia
drugs that are used primarily to elevate mood and relieve depression. Often also used in the treatment of certain anxiety disorders, bulimia, and certain personality diorders
antidepressant drugs
drugs that are used primarily for alleviating anxiety
antianxiety drugs
surgery of the nervous system, especially the brain
neurosugurgery