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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adoption Methods
Comparison of biological and adoptive relatives with or without a given disorder to asses genetic VS. enviromental influences
Association Studies
Genetic research strategy comparing frequency of certain genetic markers known to be located on particular chromosomes in people with or without a particular disorder.
Attachement Theory
Contemporary psychodynamic theory empahsizing the importance of early expirience with attachement relationships in laying the foundation for later functioning throughtout life.
Process of assigning causes to things that happen
Behavioral Genetics
Field that studies the heritability of mental disorders and other aspects of psychologycal functioning such as personality and inteligence.
Biopsychosocial Viewpoint
Acknowledges the interacting roles of biological, psychosocial and sociocultural factors in the origin of psychopathology.
Castration Anxienty
The anxiety a young boy expiriences when he desires his mother while at the same time fearing that his father may harm him by cutting off his penis; this anxienty forces he boy to repress his sexual desires for his mother and his hostility towards his father.
Chain-like structure within a cell nucleus that contains genes
Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
A theory of abnormal behavior that focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive behavior and emotions
Concordance rate
The percentage of twins sharing a disorder or trait.
Contributory Cause
A condition that increases the probability of developing a disorder but that is neither a necessary nor sufficient for it to occur.
Human stress hormone released by the cortex of the adrenal gland
Develomental Psychology
Field pf psychology that focuses on determening what is abnormal at any point in the develomental proccess by comparing and contrasting it with normal and expected changes that occur.
Developmental systems approach
Acknowledges that genetic activity influences neural activity, which in turn influences the enviroment and these influences are bidirectional.
Diathesis stress modules
view of abnormal psychology as the result of stress operating on an individual who has a bioogical, psychosocial or sociocultural predisposition to developing a specific disorder.
Ability to interpret and respond diffrently to various stimuli
In psychanalitic theory, the rational part of the personality that mediates between the demands of the id, constraints of the superego and the reality of the external world.
Ego Psychology
Psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the Ego- " the excecutive branch of the personality" in organizing normal personality development.
Ego Defense mechanisim
Phychic mechanisims that discharge or soothe anxienty rather than coping directly with an anxiety provoking situation; usually unconsious and reality distorting. also called defense mechanism.
Electra Complex
Excessive emotional attachment of a daughter for her father.
Casual pattern of abnormal behavior
Gradual disapearence of a conditioned response when it is no longer reinforced
Family History (or pedigree) method
Behavior genetic research strategy that exsamines the incidence of disorders in relatives of an index case to determine whether incidence increases in proportion to the degree of heredity relationships
Tendency of a response that has been conditioned to one stimulus to be elicited by another similar stimuli.
A person's total genetic endowment
Genotype Enviroment Correlation
Genotype vulnerability that can shape a child's enviromental expiriences
Chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands that regulate development of an activity in various parts of the body.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-cortical axis (HAP axis)
Brain endocrine system involved in responding to stress in which the hypothalamus and pituitary send messenges to the adrenal gland which releases stress hormones that feeds back on the hypothalamus
In psychanalytic theory, the reservior of instictual drives and the 1st structure to appear in infancy.
Instrumental (operant) Conditioning
Reinforcement of a subject for making a correct response that leads to either to recipt of something rewarding or to escape something unpleasent
Interpersonal Perspective
Approach to understanding abnormal behavior that views much of the psychopathology as rooted in the unfourtunate tendencies we develop while dealing with our interpersonal enviroments; it thus focuses on our relationships , past and present with other people.
Intrapsychic conflict
Inner mental struggles resulting from the interplay of the ID, ego and super ego when the 3 subsystems are striving for diffrent goals.
In psychoanalytic theory, is a term used to describe the instictual drives of the ID; the bsic constructive energy of life; primarily sexual in nature.
Likage analysis
Genetic reearch strategy in which occurence of a disorder in an exteded family is compared with that of a genetic marker for a physical characteristic or biological process that is known to be located on a particular chromosome
Necessary cause
A condition that must exist for a disorder to occur.
Chemical substances that are released into a synapse by the presynaptic neuron and which transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
Object-relation theory
in psychoanalytic theory, this view point focuses on an infant or young child's interactions with "objects" as well as how they make symbolic representations of important people in thier lives
Observational Learning
Learning through observation clone without directly experiencing an unconditioned stimulus (fro classical conditioning) or a reinfrcement (for instrumental conditioning).
Oedipus complex
Deisire for sexual realtions with a parent of opposite sex; especifically the desire of a boy for his mother with his father as a hated rival.
The observed structural and functional characteristics of a person that are the results of interactions between the genotype and the enviroment.
Pituitary gland
Endocrine gland associated with many regulatory functions.
Pleasure principle
Demand that an instinctual need be immidiatley gratified, regardless of reality or moral considerations.
Primary Process thinking
Gratification of ID demands by means of imagery of fantasy without the ability to undertake the realistic actions needed to meet those instictual demands.
Protective Factors
Influences that modify a perso's response to an enviromental stressor, making it less likely that the person will expirience the adverse side effects of the stressor.
Psychosexual stages of development
According to Freudian theory, there are five stages of psychosexual development, each haracterized by a dominant mode of achieving sexual pleasure; the oral stage, anal stage, the phalic stage, the latency stage and genital stage.
Reality Principle
Aawreness of the demandsof the enviroment and adjustment of behavior to meet standards
The process of rewarding deisred responses
The ability to aapt succesfully to even very difficult circumstances
An underlying representation of knowledge that guides current processing of information and often leads to distosions in attention, memory and comprehension.
Self Schema
Our views of what we are, what we might become and what is important to us.
Secondary process thinking
Reality oriented rational process of the ego for dealing with the external world and the excercise of control over the demands of the ID
Spontaneous recovery
The return of a learned resonse sometime after extision has occured.
Sufficient cause
A cndition that guarantees the occurence of a disorder
Conciense; ethical or moral dimension of personality
Site of communication from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites of another.
Pattern of emotional and arousal responses and characteristic way of self regulation that are considered to be primarily heredetary or constitutional
Twin Method
The use of identical and non identical twins to study the genetic influence on abnormal behavior.