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42 Cards in this Set

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Flowering plants consist of what two systems?
-Root system
-Shoot system
Dermal tissue system
Forms the covering of the plant body
Ground tissue system
Makes up most of the young plant body
Vascular tissue system
Consists of xylem and phloem
Three purposes of roots
-Anchorage
-Absorption
-Storage
Primary growth causes:
roots to elongate
Epidermis of the root is:
very permeable to water
Cortex
Makes up much of the interior of a young root
The vascular cylinder contains:
conducting tissues
Goal of stems:
reach for light
Four types of tissue in stem:
-Epidermis (dermal tissue)
-Cortex (ground tissue)
-Pith (ground tissue)
-Vascular tissues
Apical meristem (def)
The cluster of cells at the tip of a young shoot from which stems develop. Lies within the TERMINAL BUD
Lateral buds (def)
The cluster of cells at the node of a stem that can grow into branches
The cortex and pith perform three major functions:
-Support (turgor pressure)
-Storage (starch from parenchyma cells)
-Photosynthesis (chloroplasts in cortex)
Secondary growth produces:
Thicker, stronger stems
Two major parts of leaves:
-Blades (flat portion)
-Petioles (stalk)
Sapwood (def)
Young xylem that transports water and minerals
Heartwood (def)
Older xylem that contributes only to the strength of the trunk and no longer carries water and solutes
Xylem (def)
Transports water and minerals from root to shoot
Phloem (def)
Transports a concentrated sugar solution up and down the plant (weaker than xylem cells)
Tree trunks are made mostly of:
secondary xylem (thick cell walls)
Barks includes:
-Phloem
-Cork cambium
-Cork cells
Roots acquire minerals by a four-step process
-Active transport into root hairs
-Diffusion through cytoplasm to pericycle cells
-Active transport into the extracellular space of the vascular cylinder
-Diffusion into the xylem
Mycorrhizae (def)
Symbiotic relationship between land plants and fungi that allow both to receive nutrients
Cohesion-tension theory (def)
Water is pulled up the xylem, powered by transpirations (evaporation of water from the leaves)
Two major parts of the cohesion-tension theory
-Cohesion (water molecules held together, forming a solid chainlike column within the xylem tubes)
-Tension ("water chain" is pulled up the xylem using energy from evaporation)
Source (def)
Any structure that actively synthesizes sugar (phloem fluids flow away)
Sink (def)
Any structure that uses up sugar or converts sugar to starch (phloem fluids flow toward)
Pressure-flow theory (def)
Most widely accepted mechanism of sugar transport which relies on differences inhydrostatic pressure to move fluid through sieve tubes
Pericycle (def)
the outermost layer of cells of the vascular cylinder of a root
Abscisic acid (def)
A plant hormone that generally inhibits the action of other hormones, enforcing dormancy in seeds and buds and causing the stomata to close
Casparian strip (def)
A waxy, waterproof band, located in the cell walls between endodermal cells in a root, that prevents the movement of water and minerals into and out of the vascular sylinder through the extracellular space
Collenchyma (def)
An elongated, polygonal plant cell type with irregularly thickened primary cell walls
Companion cell (def)
A cell adjacent to a sieve-tube element inphloem, involved in the control and nutrition of the sieve-tube element
Endodermis(def)
The innermost layer of small, close-fitting cells of the cortex of a root that form a ring around the vascular cylinder
Leaf primordium (def)
A cluster of meristem cells, located at the node of a stem, that develops into a leaf
Parenchyma (def)
A plant cell type with thin primary cell walls that carries out most of the plant metabolism (most dividing meristem cells in a plant)
Periderm (def)
The outer cell layers of roots and a stem that have undergone secondary growth, consisteing primarily of cork cambium and cork cells
Root cap (def)
A cluster of cells at the tip of a growing root that protects the growing tip from damage
Sclerenchyma (def)
A plant cell type with thick, hardened secondary cell walls that both supports and protects the plant body
Tracheid (def)
An elongated xylem cell with tapering ends that contains pits in the cell wall; forms tubes that transport water
Vascular cambium (def)
A lateral meristem located between the xylem and phloem of a woody root or stem and that gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem