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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The _____ cells are those body cells that contain 46 chromosomes.
The _____ are the 22 pairs of chromosomes not associated with the X and Y chromosomes.
In Tay-Sachs disease, the individual is lacking an ____ that is required to metabolize a fatty compound in the brain.
In the equation [possible combinations = 2n], n stands for ____ _____.
Haploid number
During meoisis I chromosomal _____ can occur, which further adds to the level of gamete variation.
Difference between identical twins and fraternal twins.
Identical twins => same fertilized egg

Fraternal twins => two eggs fertilized
A gene can undergo changes when its sequence changes. Can be caused by radiation, chemicals, and UV light.

1 set of chromosomes

2 sets of chromosomes

All 46 chromosomes are replicated

Process for producing gametes
Role recombination plays in variation
Random process of distributing to make many variations.
Explain to your roommate what type of cell your skin cell is. Explain how is divides and how many chromosomes are present in the nucleus.
A skin cell is a somatic cell. The somatic cells of the body would include all the cells with the exception of the sex cells or gametes. Somatic cells are diploid in chromosomal number and contain 46 chromosomes. Cell division of somatic cells would be through the process of mitosis.
What is the difference between mitosis and meoisis?
Mitosis is the replication of the somatic cells. During mitosis all 46 chromosomes are replicated and each daughter cell receives the complete set of 46 chromosomes. Meoisis is cell division for the formation of gametes. During meiosis the 46 chromosomes are copied and then divide twice. This produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes, 23.
Why is it important evoluntionarily speaking that there is recombination of the genes in meiosis?
In all sexual reproducing species crossing over and Independent assortment provide genetic diversity found within a species. This is important because with without genetic diversity there is very little chance of a species adapting to the ever changing environmental conditions. Species with low genetic diversity have a high probability of going extinct if the environmental conditions change.
Explain the difference between identical and fraternal twins.
Identical twins are formed from 1 sperm fertilizing 1 egg. During fertilization the new cell begins to divide and the cells separate from each other producing two identical individuals. Fraternal twins are formed by the fertilization of two separate eggs by two separate sperm. This produces two different individuals at the same time.
What is CF and what are the symptoms? What went wrong with the CF gene. How is the disease passed on to offspring and what is the prevalence of carriers?
CF affects newborn babies. Symptoms=respiratory infections and breathing problems of the over production of mucus that cannot be disposed of normally. The CF gene underwent a mutation. The mutated form of the protein in unable to form a channel. With out the channel salts cannot be regulated and build up of mucas will form.
What is the difference between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction? Why do organisms engage in sexual reproduction even though it is not necessary to create new organisms? How does sexual reproduction generate individual variation or uniqueness?
Asexual: do not need a partner, simpler and more efficient both "genders" can produce young rather than just the female.
Sexual= must find a mate, if fail then species will fail to exist, more prevalent than asexual reproduction.

Organisms engage in sexual reproduction in order to ensure variation within the species, where as asexual reproduction does not. This is important to allow for adaptation to occur should a sudden environmental change occurs. Sexual reproduction generates individual variation by producing gametes during meiosis. Meiosis allows for 2n number of combinations depending upon the haploid number of an individual.