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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
define CATALIST
a substance that speeds up rate of chemical reactions
Proteins that act as biological catalysts are called
ENZYMES
what do ENZYMES do?
speed up rate of chemical reactions that take place in cells
From what part of an ENZYME's name usually derived?
from the reaction is catalyzes.
define SUBSTRATES
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
the binding together of an enzyme and a substrate forms a(n)
enzyme-substrate complex
define REACTANTS
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction (what goes in: LEFT of arrow)
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction (what goes in: LEFT of arrow)
REACTANTS
define PRODUCTS
the elements or compounds PRODUCED by a chemical reaction (what comes out: RIGHT of arrow)
the elements or compounds PRODUCED by a chemical reaction (what comes out: RIGHT of arrow)
PRODUCTS
what is released or absored whenever chemical bonds are formed or are broken?
ENERGY
the energy needed to get a reaction started
activation energy
define HYDROLYSIS
the breaking apart of the water molecule
How are the terms CATALYST & ENZYME related?
enzymes are proteins that act as bioligical catalysts.
How does our bodies use proteins?
1] to fight diseases
2] to carry out chemical reactions in our body
3] & to transpot small molecules in and out of cells
what is the relationship between atoms & molecules?
The atoms in compounds are held together by chemical bonds.
The molecule is the smallest unit of most compounds.
Name the 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things
1] carbohydrates
2] lipids
3] nucleic acids
4] proteins
The process in which large compounds -POLYMERS are built by joining together smaller compounds -MONOMERS.
POLYMERIZATION
IONIC BOND
the chemical bond in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
COVALENT BOND
the chimical bond in which electrons are shared between atoms.
the large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
POLYSACCHARIDES
amino acides make up what polymer?
PROTEIN
large compoung formed by the joining of small compounds, called monomers.
POLYMER
What works by lowering a reactions activation energy?
CATALYSTS
define ENZYME
proteins that act as biological catalysts
(speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells)
molecular formula for all monosaccharides
C₆H₁₂O₆
Stuctural group associated with all fatty acids
C=C, double covalent bond
The bond that joins two amino acids to form a protein
PEPTIDE bond
made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Can be used to store energy; molecules are made up of FATTY ACIDS & GLYCEROL
LIPIDS
define LIPIDS
made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Can be used to store energy; molecules are made up of FATTY ACIDS & GLYCEROL
the binding together of an enzyme and a substrate forms a(n)
enzyme-substrate complex
sinlge sugar molecule
monosaccharide
used to store energy
lipids
the monomer that makes up a nucleic acid
nucleotide
name the 5 elements found in nucleic acids
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus
the reactants of an enzyme - catalyzed reaction are known as
SUBSTRATES
stores and transmits genetic information
nucleic acid
the number of protons is the __ of an atom.
atomic number
what kind of bond holds together protein molceules
van der waals forces & hydrogen bonds
each nucleotide has what 3 things?
1]5-carbon sugar
2]Phosphate group
3]nitrogleous base
monomer of a protein
amino acids
2 or more different atoms are combined in definate proportions in any what?
compound
what elements make up FATTY ACIDS & ALCOHOLS
1] carbon
2] hydrogen
3] oxygen
molecule given off when 2 monosaccharides form together to form a disaccharide
a WATER molecule
Identify the 4 special parts of each amino acid.
1] amino group
2] r-group
3] carboxyl group
4] hydorgen atom
list the elements found in amino acids?
1] carbon
2} hydrogen
3} oxygen
4] nitrogen
atoms of the same element that differ in the numebr of neutrons
isotypes
what makes each amino acid different from one another
the r-group
atoms of the same element that differ in the numebr of neutrons
isotypes
what makes each amino acid different from one another
the r-group