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24 Cards in this Set

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What are the three components of the cardiovascular System?
1. Blood
2. Heart
3. Vessels
Do not confuse the cardiovascular system adn Circulatory System. The Circulatory Systems consitis od the Cardiovascular system + the _____ System.
Lymphatic
Blood is a ______ tissue.
Its Functions Include
1.
2.
3.
1. Transportation
2. Regulation
3. Protection
Transportation of Blood
1. carries ____ from lungs to body tissues.
2. ____wastes [CO2] from tissue to lungs,kidneys, and liver
3. nutrients from GI tract to body cells.
4._______
1. Oxygen
2. metabolic
3.
4.hormones
REGULATION of blood
1. __ via buffers
2. body _________
REGULATION
1. pH
2. temperature
PROTECTION of blood
1. blood loss (______)
2. Immunity and Immune responses
1. platelets
2. WBC's
Name 3 Ways to Obtain Whole Blood for Clinical Purposes.
1. Peripheral capillaries
2. Venipuncture
3. Arterial puncture
__% of plasma proteins are synthesized in the liver, so liver disorders can lead to problems with blood composition.
90%
PLASMA

ALBUMINE
Keeps plasma in Blood Vessels.
Transport Protein
Helps maintain osmotic pressure.
PLASMA

GLOBULIN
Antibody Production
PLASMA

FIBRINOGEN
Blood Clotting
Plasma is mostly water + proteins and other solutes such as vitamins and mineral
Plasma is mostly water + proteins and other solutes such as vitamins and mineral
Formed Elements
RBC's O2 transport
WBC's immunity
Cell Fragments
platelets
Relative percent of RBCs to total blood volume.
Males 46%, Females 42%

levels change depending on health, so may be indicative of a problem. Such as low RBCs = anemia.
Hemapoesis
process by which formed elemetns are produced via stem cell differentiation.
Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
1. _____ disc, provides a large surface to volume ratio.
2. RBCs lack ______. Cannont reproduce.
3. RBCs make round trip in less than one ____. Lifespan is ____days.
4. Replaced at a rate of _____ new blood cells per second.
1.biconcave
2. organells
3. minute; 120 days
4. 2 million
RBC Physiology
*All internal space is available for ___ transport
*Generate _____ anaerobically
*Dont use any ______.

Hemogolbin = protien + pigment called heme with iron in the denter where O2 is transported. IRON ______ BINDS O2.
*Oxygen
*ATP
*Oxygen
*Weakly
Hemoglobin also transports about ___% of total CO2.
Average levels:
males 14-18 g/dl
females: 12-16 g/dl
13

*If tightly bound RBCs can't give up O2 easily.
*Fewer RBC is fewer hemogolbin.
ANEMIA
Reduction in the hematocrit and/or hemogolbin content of blood.
Iron- deficient Anemia
Slowing down of hemoglobin production resulting from inadequates iron in the diet.
Thalassemia
Inherited blood disorder resulting in an inability to produce adequate amounts of hemoglobin. Of Mediteranian decent.
Sickle-Cell Anemia
Inherited blood disorder in which an abnormal form of hemoglobin is produced.

*1 in 12 African carry sickle-cell

*1 in 375 Africans have sickle-cell anemia.

More prone to blood clots.
Blood Doping
Elevation of Hematocrit levels
Reinfuse packed RBCs that have previously been removed and stored back into the athlete.
EPO
erythropoesis-stimulate hormone
Elevation of Hematocrit Levels
Stimulate the body to produce more RBCs itself via injection of EPO.
Hematocrit levels are tested sigs of elevated RBC are increased blood viscosity (thickness), increased workload on the heart, kidney damage, jaundice
The More RBCs you have your Increasing your O2 carrying capacity which equals higher energy production.