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22 Cards in this Set

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Define fossils...
recognizable, physical evidence of an organisim that lived in the past.
Genetic equilibrium is...
the frequencies of alleles at a given gene locus remain stable, one generation after the next.
Inbreeding refers to what?
to nonrandom mating among closely related individuals, which have many identical alleles in common. Inbreeding is a form of genetic drift in a small poulation- that is within the group of relatives that are preferentially interbreeding.
A bottleneck is what?
a severe reduction in population size, as brought about by in tense selection pressure or natural calamity.
Define population:
A group of individuals of the same species occupying to a given area.
What is lethal mutaion?
a mutation that has severe effects on pheotype usually will result in death.
Define allele frequencies...
the abundance of each kind of allele in the population.
Define gene pool...
a pool of genetic resources that in theory at least is shared by all members of a population and passed on to the next generation.
Polymophism is?
the persistance of two qualivily different forms of a trait in a population.
What is Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection?
A population can evolve (change over time) when individuals differ in one or more heritable traits that are responsible for differences in the ability to survive and reproduce.
Fixation is what?
means that only one kind of allele remains at a particular locus in the population; all individuals are homozygous for it.
Define biogeography...
the world distribution of organisms.
What is a sampling error?
A rule of probability, helps explain the difference.
A neutral mutation is what?
does not help or harm an individual. Natural selcetion can neither increase nor decrease the frequency of neutral mutations in a population, for hese do not have any discernible effect on the individual's change of surviving or reproducing.
Define theory of uniformity...
gradual, uniformly repetitive change.
What is genetic drift?
a random change in allele frequencies over generations, brought about by chance alone.
We define biological evolution as ...
heritabel changes in lineages, or lines of decent.
Microevolution is ?
refers to small-scale changes in allele frequenceis, as brought about by mutation, natural selection, gene flow, and genetic drift.
Directional selection is?
Allele frequencies that underlie a range of variation in phenotyples shift in a consistent direction. The shifts occur in reponse to a directional change in the environment or to one or more new environmental conditions. They also occur when a mutation appears and proves to be adapative.
Mutation rate is what?
the probability of its mutation during or in between DNA replications.
Define comparative morphologly
the systematic study of similariteis and ifferences in the body plans between major groups, such as different kinds of vertebrates.
Disruptive selection is what?
forms at both ends of the range of variation are favored and intermediate forms are selected against.