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22 Cards in this Set

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Aliphatic Compound
An organic compound that is NOT aromatic.

(690)
Annulenes
Cyclic hydrocarbons with alternating single and double bonds.

(694)
Aromatic Compound
A cyclic compound containing some number of conjugated dboule bonds, characterized by an unsually large resonance energy.
1. All its ring atoms must have unhybridized p orbitals that overlap to form a continous ring.
2. must be planar and have (4N+2) pi electrons.
3. Delocalization of the pi electrons over the ring results in a lowering of the electronic energy.
Antiaromatic Compound
Has a continuous ring of p orbitals, but delocalization of the pi electrons over the ring increases the electronic energy.
Must be planar and have 4N pi electrons.
(700)
Arenes
Aromatic hydrocarbons, usually based on the benzene ring as a structural unit.

(718)
Aryl Group
The aromatic group tha tremains after taking a hydrogen atom off an aromatic ring; the aromatic equivalent of the generic alkyl group (R).

(718)
Benzyl Group
(PhCH2-)
The seven-carbon unit consisting of a benzene ring and a methylene group.

(718)
Degenerate orbitals
orbitals having the same energy.
Fused Rings
Rings that share a common carbon-carbon bond and its two carbon atoms.
Heterocyclic Compound
A cyclic compound in which one or more of the ring atoms is not carbon.
Aromatic heterocycle
A heterocyclic compound that fulfills the criteria for aromaticity and has a substantail resonance energy.
Huckle's Rule
A cyclic molecule or ion that has a continous ring of overlapping p orbitals will be
1. aromatic if the number of pi electrons is (4N+2)
2. antiaromatic if 4N
Kekule Structure
a classical structural formula for an aromatic compound, showing localized double bonds.
Nonaromatic Compound
Lacking the continouos ring of overlapping p orbitals
ortho
Having a 1,2 relationship on a benzene ring.
meta
Having a 1,3 relationship on a benzene ring.
para
Having a 1,4 relationship on a benzene ring.
Phenyl Group (Ph)
The benzene ring, minus one hydrogen atom, when named as a substituent on another molecule.

(717)
Polygon Rule
The energy diagram of the MOs of a regular, completely conjugated cyclic system has the same polygonal shape as the compound, with one vertex (the all-bonding MO) at the bottom. The nonbonding line cuts horizontally through the center of the polygon.
Polynuclear aromatic compounds
Aromatic compounds with 2 or more fused aromatic rings. Naphthalene is an example of a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon. And indole is an example of a polynuclear aromatic heterocycle.
Resonance Energy
The extra stabilization provided by delocalization, compared with a localized structure. For aromatic compounds, the resonance energy is the extra stabilization provided by teh delocalization of the electrons in the aromatic ring.
Tropylium ion
the cycloheptatrienyl cation