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91 Cards in this Set

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American Psychiatric Assocation definition of abnormal behavior?
The American Psychiatric Assocation defined abnormal behavior as any behavior that leads to distress, disability, or an increased risk of death, pain or loss of freedom.
Biopsychosocial model
Abnormal behavior has three major aspects: biological, psychological, and sociological.
Genetic factors, which lead to abnormal brain development, excess or deficiencies in the activity of various neurotransmitters or hormones, ect.
Person's vulnerability to stressful events. Ex: physically or sexual abused in childhood are more likely to develop psychological problems in adulthood.
Behavior must be understood in a social and cultural context. People are greatly influenced by how other people act toward them and what other people expect of them.
DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders)
Lists the acceptable labels or all psychological disorders (alcohol intoxication, anorexia nervosa, sleepwalking disorder, stuttering, ect) including a description of each disorder and an explanation of how to distinguish it from similar disorders.
Axis I
Clinical disorders
Axis II
Personality disorders and mental retardations
Axis III
General medical conditions (diabetes)
Axis IV
Psycholosocial and environmental problems (stress)
Axis V
Global assessment of functioning
Attention deficit disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Causes of ADD/ADHD
Treatment of ADD/ADHD
Stimulant drugs like methylphenidata
Symptoms of ADD/ADHD
Impulsiveness, moodiness, failure to follow through a plan
Personality disorder
Maladaptive, inflexible way of dealing with the environment and other people.
Antisocial personality disorder
Lack of affection for others; high probability of harming others without feeling guilty; apparent weakness of most emotions.
Narcissistc personality disorder
Exaggerated opinion of one's own importance and disregard for others.
Schizotypal personality disorder
Poor relationships with other people; odd thinking; neglect of normal grooming
Dependent personality disorder
Preference for letting other people make decision, lack of initative and self confidence.
differential diagnsosis
A determination of what problem a person has in conrast to all the other possible problems that might produce similar symptoms.
Hallucination, delusions, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior, or a loss of normal emotional responses and social behaviors.
Positive symptoms
Behaviors that are notable because of their prescence, hallucinations and delusions.
negative symptoms
behaviors notable for their presence- lack of speech and emotional expressions, a lack of ability to feel pleasure, general inability to take care of oneself.
Perceptions that do not correspond to anything in the objective world.
Unfounded beliefs that are strongly held despite evidence against them.
3 common delusions
- Delusion of persecution
- Delusion of grandeur
- Delusion of reference
Delusion of persecution
A belief that you are being persecuted.
Delusion of grandeur
A belief that you are unusually imporant tendency to interpret
Delusion of reference
All sort of messages as if they were meant for oneself.
What is involved in disordered thinking?
-Impaired attention
-Difficulty using abstract concepts
-Misunderstanding simple statements because of their tendency to interpret everything literally
Prevalence of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia occurs all over the world mostly 3rd world countries. Frequently diagnosed in young adults in their teens or 20s. Schizophrenia onsets can be sudden but is usually gradual.
Dopamine Hypothesis of schizophrenia
The underlying cause of schizophrenia is excessive stimulation of certain types of dopamine synapses.
Antipsychotic drugs
A drug that can relieve schizophrenia.
Symptoms of major depression
Sleep abnormalities, are not interested in things they used to love, eating less
How long does a typcial depressive episode last?
Depression may be permanent to a few ppl but usually last a few months then they recover, but it may come back
Seasonal affective disorders
Repeatedly became depressed during a particular season of the year.
Treatment for seasonal affective disorders
Light therapy: a strong shift in the circadian rhythm is essential to the antidepression effect, but why that shift helps depression remains uncertain.
Evidence for genetic basis for depression?
There is no specific genes to depression.
Other disorders are also common in the familites of ppl w/ depression?
People with depression are more likey then other ppl to have relative substance abuse, bulimia nervosa, migraine headaches, ect.
Who experiences depression more?
Women experience depression more, hormones, sexual abuse, how people take in stress....
Explanatory style
A tendency to accept one kind of explanation for success or failure more often than others
External attribution
identifies causes outside the person
Pessimistic explanatory style
Consistently taking the blame even when the problem is not your fault.
Two cheapest and easiest way to combat depression:
-Regular sleep problems
-Consistent aerobic exercise (jogging, dancing)
Interpersonal therapy for depression
Focuses on coping with difficulties someone has faced in the present or recent past, such as death of a loved one, a bad marriage, changes in life status, and lack of social skills.
Cognitive Therapy
Focuses on changing people's thoughts and beliefs and encouraging a more active life.
3 automatic thoughts in Becks' "negative cognitive traid of depression"
- I am deprived or defeated
- The world is full of obstacles
- The future is devoid of hope.
Tricyclic drugs
Blck the reabsorption of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephire, and serotonin after they are released by an axon's terminal.
SSRI's (Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
Block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)
Block the metabolic breakdown of released dopamine, norephinephrine, and sertonin by the enzyme monoamine oxidase.
Electroconvulsive therapy
A brief elecrical shock is administered across the patient's head to induce a convulsion similar to epilepsy.
Electroconvulsive shock therapy
a brief electrical shock is administered across the patient's head to induce a convulsion similar to epilepsy
Symptoms of bi-polar disorder or mania
Bipolar I disorder have had at least one episode of mania. Mania- opposite of depression.
Treatment for bi-polar disorder
Dosages of lithium are now a common and effective treatment for bipolar disorders.
What people are most likely to attempt suicide? Warning signs?
Most ppl that are severly depressed and people with bipolar disorder. Warning-distant, speak about suicide,
unlike fear, is not generally associated with a specific situation. Anxiety is an apprehensive feeling that something might go wrong.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
almost constantly plagued by exaggerated worries.
Panic disorder (PD)
Have frequent periods of anxiety and occasions attacks of panic-- rapid breathing, increased heart rate, chest pains, sweating, faintness, and trembling.
Rapid deep breathing.
What role does avoidance learning play in phobia?
Avoidance learning is relevant to the later discussion of phobias (extreme fears) and compulsions (rituals designed to avoid unpleasant thoughts or events).
persistent fear that is extreme enough to interfere with normal living.
Systematic desensitization
A method of reducing fear by gradually exposing people to the object of their fear.
including drugs with the trade name Valium, Librium, and Xanax. It relieve anxiety, induce sleep, and inhibit epileptic seizures. One disadvanteage is that they are habitforming and withdrawing from them after repeated use produces increased anxiety.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
A condition with repetitive thoughts and actions
repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought.
repetitive, almost iresistible action.
The most common compulsions
cleaning and checking
Treatment for OCD
exposure therapy- the person is exposed to the situations in which he or she ordinaryily performs certain rituals and is then prevented from performing them.
Dependence or addiction
find it difficult or impossible to quit a self-destructive habit.
Type I alcoholism
develops gradually over the years, affects about as many women as men, is generally less severe, and depends more on life experiences than genetics.
Type II alcoholism
develops rapidly, usually by age 25, is much more common in a strong genetic basis.
Treatment of alcohol
Most widespread treatment for alcoholism in North America is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) a self-help group of people who are trying to abstain from alcohol use and help others do the same. -- Antabuse: Alcoholics who take a daily Antabuse pill become sick whenever they have a drink.
a method based on identifying unconscious thoughts and emotions and bringing them to consciousness to help people understand their thoughts and actions.
a release of pent-up emotions associated with unconscious thoughts and memories.
free association
the client starts thinking about a particular symptom or problem and then reports everything that comes to mind- a word, a phyrase, a visual image.
transferring onto the therapist the behaviors and feelings they originally established toward their father, mother, or other important person in their lives.
Behavior therapy
begins with clear, well-defined behavioral goals, such as eliminating test anxiety or breaking a bad habit, and then attempts to achieve those goals through learning.
Potty Pager work
A small device which fits into a child's underwear and produces a vibration when it becomes moist. This awakens the child, who then learns to awaken when the bladder is full.
Cognitive therapy
seeks to improve people's psychological well-being by changing their thoughts and beliefs--their cognitions. A cognitive therapist works to identify distressing thoughts and encourages the client to explore the evidence behind them.
Rational-emotive behavior therapy
Assumes that thoughts (rationality) lead to emotions. The problem therefore is not the unpleasant emotions themselves, but the irrational thoughts that lead to them.
What makes beliefs irrational?
The word must makes these beliefs irrational.
Cognitive-behavior therapy
Set explicit goals for changing people's behavior, but they place more emphasis than most behavior therapists do on changing people's interpretation of their situation.
Humanistic psychologists
Humanistic psychologists believe that people can decide deliberately what kind of person to be and that we naturally strive to achieve our full potenial.
(mismatch) between their perceptions of their real self and their ideal self.
Person-centered therapy
pioneered by Carl Rogers, The therapists listens to the client with total acceptance and unconditional positive regard.
family systems therapy
the guiding assumptions are the most people's problems develop in a family setting and that the best way to deal with them is to improve family relationships and communication.
Brief therapy
Time-limited therapy, the therapist and client reach an agreement about what they can expect from each other and how long the treatment will last.
Group therapy
Administered to a group of people all at once.
Self-help groups
Operates much like group therapy, expect without a therapist.