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15 Cards in this Set

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Due Process
The Principle, guaranteed by the constitution, that federal and state government must not deprive an individual of life, liberty or property by unfair or unreasonable actions.
Procedural due process
The rules that police officers, courts, and lawyers must follow to protect persons who are suspected, accused, or convicted of a crime
Substantive due Process
The principle that ensures that laws must be fair to all citizens.
Naturalization
the process by which a person becomes a citizen
Alien
a person who is not a citizen of the country in which he/she lives
Writ of habeas corpus
literally meaning "you shall have the body"; a court order that requires a judge to evaluate whether there is sufficient cause to keep a person in jail.
ex post facto
Literally, "after the fact"; a law prohibited by the Constitution, that makes criminal an action that was legal when it was committed.
Bill of attainder
a law, prohibited by the Constitution, that pronounces a person guilty of a crime without trial.
Search warrant
a judges order authorizing the search of a persona and specifying what evidence can be seized.
probable cause
the reasonable order authorizing that a search of property will provide evidence in a criminal case
exclusionary rule
the rule that evidence gathered in violation of the constitution cannot be presented in a trial.
indictment
a legal statement charging a person with a crime or other offence.
double jeopardy
the act of bringing a person to trial a second time for the same crime.
Bail
an amount of money exchanged for the release of an arrested person as a guarantee of his or her appearance for trial at a specified time.
eminent domain
the governments right to take control of private property for public use.