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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cells that transmit impulses
transmit stimuli to the brain and spinal cord
sensory neurons (afferent nerves)
transmit impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands
motor neurons (efferent neurons)
cells that support neurons and bind them to other tissues
what are the 3 structures of a neuron?
cell body, axon, dendrites
the enlarged structure of the neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell and various organelles
cell body
carry impulses to the cell body
carry impulses from the cell body
a white, lipoid covering that acts as an electrical insulator that reduces possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves; it acclerates impulse transmission through the axon
myelin sheath
T or F the myelin sheath constitutes the gray matter of the CNS
false (white matter)
constitutes the gray matter of the CNS
unmyelinated fibers
T or F the Schwann cell wraps tightly around the axon
thin cellular membrane formed by the Schwann cell
neurilemma (neurolemma)
the space between adjacent Schwann cells that helps maintain the electrical potentials needed for impulse conduction
node of Ranvier
T or F neurons are continuous with each other
false (not continuous)
what are the 4 types of neuroglia?
astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microalgia, and ependyma
a form of neuroglia that is star-shaped and forms tight sheaths around the capillaries of the brain; form blood-brain barrier
a form of neuroglia that help in the development of myelin on neurons of the CNS
the smallest form of neuroglia that posseses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infections (eaters)
a form of neuroglia that are ciliated cells that line fluid-filled cavities of the CNS, especially the ventricles of the brain; they assist in CSF fluid circulation
what are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system?
central nervous system (CNS) and periheral nervous system (PNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which emerge from te base of the skull, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
what are the 4 major structures of the brain?
cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brainstem
largest and uppermost portion of the brain and consists of 2 hemishperes divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or groove
joins the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum, permitting communication between the right and left sides of the brain
corpus callosum
T or F all 5 lobes of each hemisphere in the cerebrum are named for the bones that lie directly above them
false (only 4 of the lobes)
what are the 4 lobes of each hemisphere in the cerebrum that are named for the bones that lie directly above them; what is the 5th lobe
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital; insula
thin, gray layer that covers the entire cerebrum and is composed of millions of cell bodies (which gives it its gray color)
cerebral cortex
what are the major functions of the cerebrum?
sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and the emotional aspects of behavior and memory
posterior portion on the brain that involve movement; coordinates and refines muscular movement; aids in maintaining equilibrium and balance
composed of the thalamus and the hypothalamus
diencephalon (interbrain)
receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory stimuli and processes and transmits them to the cerebral cortex; receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves
integrates autonomic nerve impulses, regulates body temp, and controls endocrine functions
composed of midbrain, medulla, and pons; controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
separates the cerebrum from the brainstem
attaches to the spinal cord
"bridge" connecting the midbrain to the medulla
carry impulses upward
ascending tracts; sensory nerve tracts
carry impulses downward
descending tracts; motor nerve tracts
the outermost covering of the mininges; tough, fibrous, and composed primarily of connective tissue
dura mater
lies beneath the dura mater and is filled with serous fluid
subdural space
the middle covering of the meninges; has a spider-web appearance
contains CSF that provides addidtional protection for the brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber
subarachnoid space
T or F all cranial nerves are mixed
false (sensory, motor, OR mixed)
the innermost covering of the mininges that contains numerous blood vessels nad lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissue
pia mater
a colorless fluid that contains proteins, glucose, urea, salts, and some white blood cells; it circulates around the spinal cord and brain and through ventricles
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
located within the inner portion of the brain, and provides nutritive substances to the CNS
a condition that occurs when there is any interference with absorption results in a collection of fluid in the brain
T or F all spinal nerves are mixed
contains motor fibers
anterior roots
contains sensory fibers
posterior roots
innervates glands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles; considered involuntary
automated nervous system (ANS)
primarily innervates skeletal muscles and is associated with voluntary movement
somatic nervous system (SNS)
produce vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and slowing of gastrointestinal activity; evident in "fight-or-flight" situations
sympathetic nerve fibers
generally transmitts impulses that bring about vasodilation, a slower heart rate, a decrease in blood pressure, anda return to a normal gastrointestinal activity
parasympathetic nerve fibers
what are the 2 subdivisions of the ANS?
sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
facial paralysis caused by functional disorder of the 7th cranial nerve and any or all of its branches; associated with herpes virus
bell palsy
symptoms of bell palsy
weakness and numbness of the face, distortion of taste perception, facial disfigurement, and facial spasms
corneal infection
refers to any functional abnormality of the cerebrum caused by disorders of the blood vessels of the brain; most commonly associated with a stroke
cerebrovascular disease (CVD)
what are the 3 major types of strokes?
ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemmorhage, and subarachnoid hemmorhage
most common stroke caused by a narrowing of the arteries of the brain or neck, generally due to arteriosclerosis
ischemic stroke
type of stroke caused by the sudden rupture of an artery within the brain
intracerebral hemmorhage
type of stroke where blood is released into the space surrounding the brain; commonly caused by a ruptured aneurysm and is usually fatal
subarachnoid hemmorhage
lack of muscular coordination
stroke symptoms that resolve whitin 24 hrs; aka mini-stroke
transient ischemic attack
chronic or recurring seizure disorders
involve electrical disturbances
what are some causes of epilepsy?
brain injury, congenital anomalies, metabolic disorders, brain tumors, vascular disturbances, and genetic disorders
there is a short alteration of consciousness of about 10-30 secs, characterized by repetitive, unusual movements and confusion
partial seizures
temp lapse in consciousness, accompanied by rhythmic movement of the eyes, head, or hands, without convulsions
generalized seizures
progressive neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement
Parkinson disease
decreased speed of movement
bradykinesia (hypokinesia)
rubbing of the thumbs and index fingers together
pill rolling
progressive, degenerative disease of the CNS; characterized by inflammation, hardening and, finally, loss of myelin
multiple sclerosis (MS)
what are some signs and symptoms of MS?
tremors, muscle weakness, and bradykinesia
progressive neurological disorder that causes memory loss and serious mental deterioration
Alzheimer disease
small lesions that develop in the cerebral cortex and disrupt the passage of electrochemical signals between cells
what are some manifestations of Alzheimer disease?
memory loss, cognitive decline, and a decline in social skills and abolity to carry out activities of daily living
these tumors can arise from any structure within the cranial cavity, including the pituitary and pineal glands, cranial nerves, and the arachnoid and pia mater
intracranial tumors
T or F all intracranial tumors originate directly in brain tissue
false (most, not all)
T or F metastatic tumors of the cranial cavity are usually easier to remove than primary intracranial tumors