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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
use of organisms to perform practical tasks
recombinant DNA technology
technology that combines genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule
small, circular DNA molecule found in bacteria that is separate from the bacterial chromosome
restriction enzyme
enzyme that cuts sugar-phosphate bonds in the DNA backbone at specific points within particular nucleotide sequences in DNA
genomic library
complete collection of cloned DNA fragments from an organism
nucleic acid probe
radioactively labeled nucleic acid molecule used to tag a particular DNA sequence
genetically modified organism
organism that has acquired genetic material by artificial means
genetically modified organism whose source of new genetic material is a different species
polymerase chain reaction
technique that makes many copies of a certain segment of DNA without using living cells
gel electrophoresis
technique for sorting molecules or fragments of molecules by length
genetic marker
specific portion of DNA that varies among individuals
DNA fingerprint
an individual's unique banding pattern on an electrophoresis gel, determined by restriction fragments of the person's DNA
cluster of genes and their control sequences
control sequence on an operon where RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA
control sequence on an operon that acts as a switch, determining whether or not RNA polymerase can attach to the promoter
protein that binds to the operator and blocks attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
transcription factor
protein that regulates transcription by binding to promoters or to RNA polymerases
gene expression
transcription and translation of genes into proteins
cellular differentiation
increasing specialization in structure and function of cells during development of a multicellular organism
stem cell
cell with the potential to develop into one of several types of differentiated cells
homeotic gene
master control gene in many organisms that directs development of body parts