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21 Cards in this Set

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Genetic engineering is
A. the use of Mendelian genetics for research purposes.
B. manipulating genes for practical purposes.
C. still years away from being part of our daily lives.
D. the purposeful mutation of genes to create new life-forms.
B. manipulating genes for practical purposes. -Scientists can identify and locate genes for specific traits or insert genes for a desired trait from one organism into another to cure diseases and improve food crops.
Recombinant DNA is DNA that
A. is made from two or more sources.
B. is likely to combine with other DNA sequences.
C. has been copied artificially for use in the laboratory.
D. has repetitive sequences that can be used to locate a particular gene.
A. is made from two or more sources. -Using restriction enzymes and cloning vectors, biologists can combine DNA sequences from two or more organisms.
How are restriction enzymes used to make recombinant DNA?
A. Restriction enzymes restrict all DNA sequences except those that are desired for combination, which are then "glued" together with different enzymes.
B. Restriction enzymes create new sequences of nucleotides that are used to "glue" two different strands together.
C. Restriction enzymes cut specific sequences on different DNA strands in a way that produces "sticky ends," which are complementary.
D. Restriction enzymes make a copy of one of the two different DNA strands. Special ends are then made and attached to the two DNA strands to stick the two strands together.
C. Restriction enzymes cut specific sequences on different DNA strands in a way that produces "sticky ends," which are complementary. -Restriction enzymes recognize and cut the same sequence of nucleotides on two different DNA molecules. This action produces complementary sequences that bond together.
A plasmid is a
A. type of enzyme that is used in cloning.
B. small, linear segment of DNA.
C. small ring of DNA that is usually found in bacteria.
D. gene from another organism that is targeted for cloning.
C. small ring of DNA that is usually found in bacteria. -A plasmid is a small, circular segment of DNA that is in addition to a bacterium's main chromosome. The size and shape of plasmids make them convenient vectors for cloning.
How are cloning vectors used to clone and transfer genes?
A. Cloning vectors are small vesicles containing DNA fragments that can be used to copy, clone, and transfer any gene to any other organism.
B. A new gene is spliced into a cloning vector. The vector is then allowed to produce clones, which can be used to transfer the new gene to other organisms.
C. Cloning vectors locate bacteria with the desired gene and induces the bacteria to divide, creating clones of the gene. The cloning vector then removes the gene and places it into other organisms.
D. Cloning vectors create sticky ends to attach themselves to the desired gene. This induces the gene to clone itself, making many copies that can then be transferred to other organisms.
B. A new gene is spliced into a cloning vector. The vector is then allowed to produce clones, which can be used to transfer the new gene to other organisms. -The vector, which is often a plasmid from a bacterium, is copied as the bacteria divide. These bacteria can be used to introduce the genes elsewhere or to make more copies of the gene.
Which of the following is not a basic step that may be used in a gene-transfer experiment?
A. The polymerase chain reaction enzyme is used to create multiple copies of DNA.
B. Both the DNA of interest and the DNA of the vector are cut.
C. The gene of interest is inserted into a cloning vector, such as a plasmid.
D. The plasmid with the recombinant DNA is inserted into a host, usually a bacterium, which divides many times.
A. The polymerase chain reaction enzyme is used to create multiple copies of DNA. -Polymerase chain reaction is a technique that is used to produce enough DNA for use in DNA fingerprinting, not in genetic engineering.
Once a eukaryotic gene has been inserted into a prokaryote, how is the prokaryote induced to translate the gene into the desired proteins?
A. No extra steps need to be taken; the bacterium will naturally produce the foreign protein as it reproduces.
B. The exons must first be removed from the foreign gene to leave only the parts of the gene that will be translated.
C. The gene is placed far from a commonly transcribed gene in the bacterium DNA so that both are frequently transcribed.
D. Promoters, or sequences that turn on a gene, are transferred along with the desired gene into the bacterium cell.
D. Promoters, or sequences that turn on a gene, are transferred along with the desired gene into the bacterium cell. -By inserting the sequences that "turn on" the desired gene along with the desired foreign gene, the bacteria are induced into transcribing and translating the foreign gene.
What is a DNA fingerprint?
A. the specific DNA sequences that code for an individual's fingerprint pattern
B. the mark left behind on each ribosome as a reflection of the individual's unique DNA pattern
C. the DNA sequences left behind in the oil, sweat, or blood of a fingerprint
D. a pattern of bands made up of specific fragments from an individual's DNA
D. a pattern of bands made up of specific fragments from an individual's DNA -The pattern of bands forms when DNA fragments with attached probes are exposed to X-ray film.
Which of the following is not a step involved in the preparation of a DNA fingerprint?
A. DNA from a tissue sample is cut into many fragments using restriction enzymes.
B. The fragments are then separated using a technique called polymerase chain reaction.
C. The smaller fragments of DNA travel farther through the gel than larger fragments do.
D. Radioactive probes bind with chosen fragments and are made visible when exposed to photographic film.
B. The fragments are then separated using a technique called polymerase chain reaction. -The fragments are separated by a technique called gel electrophoresis, which separates the fragments by both size and electrical charge.
Which of the following is involved in preparing DNA fingerprints?
A. RFLP analysis
B. gel electrophoresis
C. polymerase chain reaction
D. all of the above
D. all of the above -RFLP analysis is one way to prepare DNA fingerprints. Gel electrophoresis separates the cut DNA fragments by size. PCR makes multiple copies of DNA sequences for use in a DNA fingerprint.
When is it necessary to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
A. whenever a DNA fingerprint is needed
B. when only a tiny amount of DNA is available for analyzing
C. when an extremely accurate DNA fingerprint is needed
D. whenever primers are not available
B. when only a tiny amount of DNA is available for analyzing -PCR produces many copies of selected DNA regions, so only a small amount of DNA is needed initially. PCR is used in violent crime cases, embryo testing, and analysis of ancient remains.
The goal of the Human Genome Project is to
A. map the location of all human genes and to figure out the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.
B. cure every known genetic disorder of the human genome.
C. catalogue and file the genome of every person for medical purposes and for identification.
D. improve the existing human genome so that humans can live longer, healthier lives.
A. map the location of all human genes and to figure out the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome. -Institutions around the world are cooperating on this massive undertaking. The final map will list the order of the nearly 3 billion nucleotide pairs and the location of about 100,000 genes.
Which of the following is not a potential use of the Human Genome Project?
A. to improve diagnoses of genetic disorders
B. to cure genetic disorders
C. to gain understanding of how evolution occurs
D. to improve the capabilities of the human species
D. to improve the capabilities of the human species. -The goal of the Human Genome Project is not to create a super being but to understand the normal genome. This information can then be used to cure those suffering from genetic disorders.
Which of the following describes how gene therapy may be used?
A. Therapy may be offered for individuals and families of those with known genetic disorders.
B. Geneticists may prepare pedigree charts to help track genetic abnormalities through multiple generations.
C. Defective genes may be repaired or replaced to permanently cure genetic disorders.
D. Blood samples of parents and of developing embryos can be tested for possible genetic disorders.
C. Defective genes may be repaired or replaced to permanently cure genetic disorders. -Progress has been made in treating some genetic disorders that are caused by a single missing or defective protein.
How is DNA technology used to produce medicine?
A. Gene transfer technology is used to induce bacteria to produce massive amounts of a needed human protein.
B. A DNA fingerprint is made to determine when the defense system of a sick person's body is not working correctly. Medications can then be produced artificially to combat the illness.
C. The polymerase chain reaction is used to produce massive amounts of any required protein.
D. Doctors can now choose any protein from the human genome and produce as much as needed, thanks to the Human Genome Project.
A. Gene transfer technology is used to induce bacteria to produce massive amounts of a needed human protein. -Bacteria are currently producing human insulin for diabetic patients. Other ailments treated with bacteria-produced proteins include anemia, heart attacks, viral infections, cancer, and AIDS.
A pathogen is any
A. type of disease.
B. agent that fights disease.
C. agent that causes disease.
D. type of vaccine.
C. agent that causes disease. -Bacteria and viruses are common pathogens, or disease-causing agents. When altered, these same pathogens can be used to prevent infection.
How is a vaccine different from other types of medication?
A. Vaccines are used to prevent certain types of infectious diseases. Other medications are used to treat the disease after infection has taken place.
B. A vaccine is medication delivered by injection; other types of medication are given orally or as nasal sprays.
C. Vaccines are only effective against viruses.
D. Vaccines are only given when no other treatment is available, because they are usually less effective than other medications.
A. Vaccines are used to prevent certain types of infectious diseases. Other medications are used to treat the disease after infection has taken place. -Vaccines are usually given to prevent infection before any signs of illness occur. Vaccines are often developed for viral diseases, which may not be treatable with existing drugs.
How is DNA technology used to produce vaccines?
A. Killed viruses are injected into an individual to induce the body to build immunity to the dangerous virus.
B. Weakened viruses are injected into an individual to induce immunity to the dangerous form of the virus.
C. Surface protein genes from a dangerous virus can be inserted into a harmless virus.
D. DNA technology can be used to produce massive quantities of a dangerous virus. These viruses are used to cause mild infections that lead to immunity.
C. Surface protein genes from a dangerous virus can be inserted into a harmless virus. -The harmless surface proteins are displayed by infected cells. The result is immunity to the dangerous virus with no risk of accidental infection.
Which of the following is not a way that DNA technology has already been used to improve crop yields?
A. altering genes in soybean plants for herbicide resistance
B. altering genes in tomato plants to produce compounds that are toxic to hornworms
C. altering genes in cassava plants for disease resistance
D. inserting bacterial genes for nitrogen fixation into plants
D. inserting bacterial genes for nitrogen fixation into plants -Scientists are trying to insert the bacterial genes for nitrogen fixation into plants. If successful, such genetic engineering would produce plants that can live in nitrogen-poor soils without fertilizer.
Which of the following statements about the regulation of genetic engineering in the United States is true?
A. The production of genetically engineered foods is currently unregulated.
B. Genetic engineering is currently overseen by only one federal agency.
C. At least four national organizations currently regulate genetic engineering and genetically engineered foods.
D. Foods produced by transgenic crops are required to be specially labeled.
C. At least four national organizations currently regulate genetic engineering and genetically engineered foods.
- The FDA, the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the USDA, and the EPA all play a part in regulating genetic engineering in the United States.
Which of the following describes a potential environmental threat that is associated with genetically engineered crop plants?
A. Altered plants could cause severe allergic reaction.
B. Engineered plants could share altered genes with nearby wild species, creating "super weeds."
C. New proteins, carbohydrates, or fats could create health problems in people who consume the engineered foods.
D. New crop plants could use too many natural resources, such as water or nitrogen.
B. Engineered plants could share altered genes with nearby wild species, creating "super weeds." Pollen from genetically altered crops may exchange genes with closely related wild plants. If these wild plants gain the genetic enhancements, they may grow to displace other native plants.