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84 Cards in this Set

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What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
What does the endocrine system do?
Acts as a means of internal communications, coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
What do endocrine glands do?
Synthesize and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system.
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
What do hormones do?
Regulate the function of target organs or tissues. Some regulate single type of cell/organ; some have more widespread actions.
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
Which glands synthesize or secrete hormones?
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidneys, gastrointestinal glands, heart, thymus.
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
Where is the pituitary and what does it look like?
It is at the base of the brain and is a small trilobed gland (lobes = anterior, posterior, intermediate)
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
What does the anterior pituitary do?
It synthesizes both direct hormones and tropic hormones.
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
What regulates the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
Which direct hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
Growth hormone (aka GH or somatotropin) & prolactin

GH promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibites uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, conserving glucose. GH secretion stimulated by GHRH, inhibited by somatostatin. GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism, overproduction result in gigantism/acromegaly.

Prolactin stimualates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
Which tropic hormones are synthesized by the anterior pituitary and what do they do?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)

TSH stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and synthesize and relase thyroid hormone. Regulated by releasing hormone TRH.

LH stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone. Regulated by estrogen, progesterone, GnRH).

FSH in females causes maturation of ovarian follicles; in males FSH stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production. Regulated by estrogen and GnRH.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.
What does the posterior pituitary store and release? What do they do? What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH. Stimulated by action potentials descending from hypothalamus.

Oxytocin increases strength and frequncy of uterine muscle contractions; stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin) increases permealbiloity of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume. Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases, as sense by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus, or when blood volume decreases, as sense by baroreceptors in circ. system.
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.
Where is hypothalamus located? What triggers it? What does it do?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above teh pituitary gland. Receives neural transmissions from other parts of th ebrain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its neurosecretory cells. The cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting/releasing hormones.
How does the hypothalamus interact with the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic releasing hormones are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituirary to secrete FSH and LH. Releasing hormones are secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. In this circulatory pathway, blood from teh capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a 2nd capillary network. In this way, releasing hormones can immediately reach the anterior pituitary.