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266 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
endocrine syst acts as a?
mean of intern communc
endocrine glands synth and secr?
hormones
endocrine gl secr into?
circulatory system
exocrine glands like gall bladder secr into?
ducts, not circul syst
name endocrine glands
hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thryoid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovary, testis
pituitary gland is located
at base of brain
pituitary
2 main lobes?
anterior and posterior
pituitary has how many lobes?
3.
intermed lobe is rudimentary
anterior pituitary synth what 2 general types of hormones
1. direct hormones
2. tropic hormones
tropic hormones?
stim other endocrine glands to release hormones
hormon secr of anterior pit are regul by?
hypothalalmic secretions called releasing/ inhib hormones
growth hormone is made by
anterior pit
growth hormone is also called?
GH, somatotropin
Growth hormone is a
direct or tropic hormone
direct hormone
GH does what?
promotes bone and muscle growth, inhib uptake of gluc by cert cells, stim breakdown of fatty acid, conser gluc
what hormone stim bone and muslce growth, and stim breakdown of fatty acid?
growth hormone, somatotropin
GH secret is stimul by?
hypothalamic releasing hormone GHRH
GH secr is inhib by?
somatostatin
GH secret is under hypothal contr, and what oth contr?
neural and metabolic
Dwarfism arises from?
GH defic
overprod of GH prod?
gigantism
overprod of GH in adults causes?
gigantism
gigantism is caused by?
overprod of GH
GIGantism is charact by?
disproport growth of skull, jaw, feet, and hands
anterior pituitary prod what direct hormones?
1. gr horm
2. prolactin
3. endorphins
anter pit
prolactin does what?
stim milk prod and secr in femal mammary glands
anter pit
direct hormones
endorphins do what?
inhib the percp of pain
enkephalins are ?
endorphins
tropic hormones of anterior pit are?
1. acth
2. TSH
3. LH
4. FSH
FLAT PEG
six hormones of ant pit
fsh
ls
acth
tsh

prolact
endorph
gh
ant pit
tropic horm
Adenocorticotropic hormone ACTH does what
stim the adren cortex to synt and secrete glucocorticoids. regulated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
ACTH stim adrenal cortex to secrete?
glucocorticoids
ACTH is regul by
CRF
CRF is
corticotropin releasing factor
ant pit
thyroid stimul hormone does what
stim thyroid gland to absorb iodine and syn thyroid hormone. regulated by TRH
anter pit
TSH stim thyroid gland to absorb?
iodine
TSH is regulated by?
TRH
where is TSH released from?
anter pit
anter pit
luteinizing hormone LH does what?
stim ovulat and format of copus luteum in women, in men- stim interst c of testes to syn test.
LH is regul by?
estrogen, progest, gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH
ant pit
tropic horm
Adenocorticotropic hormone ACTH does what
stim the adren cortex to synt and secrete glucocorticoids. regulated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
ACTH stim adrenal cortex to secrete?
glucocorticoids
ACTH is regul by
CRF
CRF is
corticotropin releasing factor
ant pit
thyroid stimul hormone does what
stim thyroid gland to absorb iodine and syn thyroid hormone. regulated by TRH
anter pit
TSH stim thyroid gland to absorb?
iodine
TSH is regulated by?
TRH
where is TSH released from?
anter pit
anter pit
luteinizing hormone LH does what?
stim ovulat and format of copus luteum in women, in men- stim interst c of testes to syn test.
LH is regul by?
estrogen, progest, gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH
post pit stores what hormones
oxytocin and ADH
oxytocin and adh are made by ____________ and stored in _______________
made by hypothalamus
stored by post pit
post pit is stim to rel hormones by?
act potent from hypothalamus
oxytocin does what?
incr str of uterine muscle contr. stim milk secret
suckling induces what hormone?
oxytocin
post pit
antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) does what?
incre the permeability of nephron's collect ducts to water, prom water eabsorption and incre bl volume
ADH is also called?
vasopressin, antidiuretic hormone
ADH does what to bl vol?
incr blood volume
when bl vol decre post pit secre what?
adh
if plasma osmolarity incr what post pit hormone is relesased?
adh
osmorecept in hypothalamus sense?
plasma osmolarity
hypothalamus have ______________ that sense plasma osmolarity
osmoreceptors
barorecept in circulatory syst can sense?
changes in blood volume
which hormone incre the permeability of nephrons collect duct to water and prom water reabsorp?
adh
hypothalamus is part of the ________________
forebrain
hypothalamus is locat above?
pit gland
hypoth neurosecret c regulate pit gland secretions thr?
1. negat feedb
2. inhib and rele hormones
hypothalamus
have releasing horm that secret into?
hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal systm
hypothalamic - hypophyseal portal syst has how many capillary beds?
2
what conn the 2 capill beds in hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system?
a portal vein
hypothalamus interacts with _____________ thr a portal vein
ant pit
oversect of hormones is prev by?
negative feedback
hypothal has neurosecr c that synth and transp ________________ via their axons to post pit
oxytocin and adh
how does oxytoc and adh get from hypoth to post pit?
by the axons of neurosc c
throid gland
describe
bi lobed
loc on ventral surf of trachea
throid gland prod?
thyroxine, triidothyronine, and calcitonin
who make calcitonin?
thyroid gland
who makes thryoxine?
thyroid gland
T4 and T3 are made by?
thyroid
T4 and T3 are derived from?
iodination of aa tyrosine
Thyroid hormones T4 T3 are necess for?
gr and neurol dev in children
thyroid hormones do what?
neur and gr in child
incre rate of cell resp, prot and fatty acid synth
high levels of thyroid hormone inhibit?
trh and tsh secre
iodine defec causes?
hypothyroidism
hypothyroidism common sympt are?
slowed heart rate and resp rate, fatigue, cold intole, and weight gain
cretinism in infants is caused by?
hypothyroidism
cretinism
symp
mental retard, and sh stature
thyroid is overstim in what condition?
hyperthyroidism
goiter is?
an enlarged thyroid
calciTONIN tones down?
Ca2+
PTH increases?
Ca2+ concentr
PTH act antagonist to ?
calcitonin
calcitonin acts antagonist to ?
PTH
Thyroid
calcitonin does what?
descr plasma Ca2+ concentr
calc inhibits the release of ?
ca2+ from bone
calcitonin is made by the?
thyroid
parathyroid gl are located?
on post surf of thyroid. 4 small pea shaped struct
PTH , __________, and _______________ regul plasma CA2+ levels.
calcitonin, and vitamin D
PTH ___________ Ca2+ levels
increases
PTH decreases?
Ca2+ excretion in kidneys
PTH converts ______________ into its active form
Vitamin D
Vitamin D stim ____________________
intestinal calcium absorption
PTH is the
parathyroid hormone
calcium plays import roles in?
1. bone
2. reg of muscle contr
3. cofact for normal bl clott
4. cell movem
5. exocytosis
6. neurotransmitter release
where are adrenal glands located?
on top of the kidneys
adrenal glands are made up of?
adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
makes what steroid hormones in resp to stress?
glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, and cortical sex hormones
adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids are also called?
corticosteroids
adrenal cortex is stim by ?
ACTH
adrenal cortex is stim by ACTH in resp to ?
stress
adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids
name 2
cortisol, cortisone
glucocorticoids
cortisol and cortisone do what?
raise bl gluc lev by promot gluconeogenesis and decr prot synth
red immulogic and inflamm resp
what 2 hormones raise bl gluc lev by promot gluconeogenesis?
cortisol, cortisone
adrenal cortex
mineralcorticoids regulated bl levels of?
sodium and potassium
who makes aldosterone?
adrenal cortex
adrenal cortex
aldosterone causes?
act reab of sodium and pass reabsorpt of water in the nephron
aldosteron secr does what to bl vol and bl press?
incre bl vol and bl press
what hormone regul plasma lev of sodium and potassium?
aldosterone
aldoster stim secretion of?
potassium and hydrogen ion and excret in urin
renin- angiotensisn syst regul what hormone?
aldosterone
blood volume falls, what happens in renin- angiotensin system?
bl vol falls, juxtglom c prod renin, renin conv angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. angiotensin I is conv to angiotensin II, angiotens II stim adren cortex to secr aldosterone, aldost rest bl vol by incre sodium reabb at kidney, this leads to incre water reabsorpt
what prod renin?
juxtaglomerular c of kidney
what does renin do?
its an enzyme that conv antiotensinogen to angiotensin I
angiotensinogen is a __________ protein
plasma
angiotensisn II stimulates?
adrenal cort to secr alsosterone
angiotensis II does what 2 things?
1. stim secr of aldosterone
2. incre bl press by a vasoconstrictive effect
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors do what?
block conv of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
ACE inhibitors are used to treat?
high bl press and CHF
which inhibitor blockes the convers of angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
ACE inhibitor
adrenal cortex
secretes what male sex hormone?
androgens.
adrenal cortex
overprod of androgens in females
what symptoms?
excess facial hair,
mascul effectsw
adrenal medulla
have sympathetic _____________
nerve c
adrenal medulla
sympath nerve c secrete hormones into?
circul systm
adrenal med prod?
epinephrine, norepinephrine
other name for epinephrine and norepinephrine?
adrenaline, noradrenaline
name 2 catecholamines?
epinephrine, norepinephrine
catecholamines are derived from?
aa
adrenal medulla
epinephrine does what?
incre conv of glycogen into glucose in liver and muscle tiss
incre metabolic rate
incre rate and str of h beat
dilate bl vess to skel mus
what 2 hormones decr bl flow to kidneys, skin, and digest tract?
epinephr, norep
Fight or flight response is med by what 2 hormones?
epinephr and norephr
epinephr and norepineph are hormones and _______________
neurotransm
pancreas is an exocrine and ?
endocrine organ
pancreas
exoocrine prod are?
digest enzymes that trav thr ducts
pancreas
endocr funct is done by?
islets of langerhans
pancreas
islets of langerhans is composed of?
alpha, beta, and delta c
pancreas
islets of langerhans
alpha c make?
glucagon
pancreas
beta c make?
insulin
pancreas
delta c prod ?
somastostatin
in pancreas who makes somatostatin>?
delta c
glucagon is made where?
pancreas in the alpha c
what are exocrine prod of pancreas?
amylase
lipase
trypsin, chymotrypsin, carobxypeptidase
pancreas
glucagon stimulates
prot and fat degrad. convers of glycogen to gluc and gluconeogenesis.
it incre bl gluc levels
glucagon secret is stimul by?
decr in bl gluc and gastrointentestinal hormones like CCK and gastrin
glucagon is antagonistic to ?
insulin
CCK and gastrin stimulate the secret of which hormone?
glucagon
high plasma glucose levels inhibit what pancreatic hormone?
glucagon
insulin _________________ plasma glucose
decreases
glucagon ______________ plasma glucose
increases
insulin is what type of hormone?
protein
Insulin stimulates
uptake of gluc by muslce and adipose tiss, stor of gluc as glycogen in muscle and liver c.
t or f
gluc stim the synth of fats
true
insulin stim the ____________ of fats
synthesis
growth hormone, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and glucagon all?
increase plasma glucose
name 4 hormones that incr plasma gluc?
1. glucagon
2. growth hormone
3. glucocorticoids
4. epinephrine
hypoglycemia is caused by?
overprod of insulin
making too much insulin causes?
hypoglycemia
diabetes mellitus happens when you have?
underprod of ins or insensitiv to insulin
diabetes mellitus
you will have hypo or hyper glycemia?
hyperglycemia
high bl gluc level leads to secret of?
gluc and water
diabetes mellitus
sympt
1. hyperglycemia
2. secret of gluc and water
3. weakness, fatigue
4. ketoacidosis
ketoacidosis is?
danger lowering of bl ph due to excess keto acids and fatty acids in the plasma
pacreas
somatostatin leads to decr?
insulin and glucagon secret
what stimul secret of somatostatin?
1. high bl gluc lev
2. high AA levels
secre of somatostatin leads to ?
decre insul and glucagon secretion
T or F
somatostatin is regulated by CCK and GH levels
T
somatostatin is made in?
pancreas
somatostatin is always ________________
inhibitory
the _______________ c of the testes prod and secrete androgens
interstitial
what do the interstitial c of testes make?
androgens
testosteron is a type of
androgen
testosteron is regulated by a negat feedback loop involv?
FSH and LH
testicular feminization is due to?
insensitiv to test
XY, but looks like a female is due to?
testicular feminization
______________ in the testes make testosteron
interstitial cells
ovaries secr what hormones?
estrogens, progesterone
secret of estr and progesterone is regulated by?
LH and FSH, which are regulated by GnRH
estr and progest is ultimately regulated by?
GnRH
estrog and progesterone are ___________ hormones
steroid
estrogen stim ?
devel of female reprod tract, and devel of sec sex charact, and sex drive, and thick of endometrium
who secretes estrogen?
ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
progesterone is secre by?
corpus luteum
progesterone stim devel of?
endometrial walls
4 parts of menstrual cycle?
1. follicular phase
2. ovulation
3. luteal phase
4. menstruation
menstrual cycle
follicular phase ________ act tog to promote devel of several ovarian follicles
FSH, and LH
Follicular phase
later half rising levels of ___________ stimulate GnRh secretion, which stimulates more LH secretion
estrogen
follicular phase
FSH and LH promote devl of ovar follicles which begin to secr ______________
estrogen
ovulation
is caused by ?
a surge in LH
ovulation
the surge in LH is caused by?
a peak in estrogen levels
_______ surge at midcycle triggers ovul
LH
_____________ mature during follicular phase (FSH, LH)
follicles
the ruptured follicle bec ___________
corpus luteum
corpus luteum secretes?
estrog and progest
corpus luteum secr estr and progest to ?
build up uterine lining
luteal phase
LH induces ruptured follicle to dev into?
corpus luteum
_______ causes glands of endometrium to mature and prod secret to prepare it for implantat of an embryo
progesterone
what are essent for maint of endometrium?
progest and estrog
what inhibits secret of GnRH during luteal phase?
progesterone and estrog
luteal phase
the inhib of GnRH prev?
maturat of addit follicles
menstruation
if corpus luteum is not fertil what happens?
the corpus luteum atrophies
when corpus luteum atrophies what happens?
there is a drop in progesterone and estrogen
Drop in progest and estrog lev causes _____________ to slough off
endometrium
menstruation.
progest and estrog levels decline and _________ is no longer inhibited
GnRH
menstruation
GnRH restimulates?
LH and FSH secret
if fertiliz doesnt occur, corpus luteum atrophies, ______________ lev decre, and __________ then begin to rise again
progest and estrog lev decr,
LH and FSH lev begin to rise
pregnancy
corpus lut is preserved by?
human chorionic gonadotropin
who makes HCG?
blastocyst and devel placenta
first trimester
HCG maintains progest and estrog secret by the ___________
corp luteum
preg
first trim
who secret progest and estrog?
corp luteum
preg
sec trimest
HCG levels?
decline
preg
sec trim
who starts secre lots of progest and estrog?
placenta
the placenta secr high levels of progest and estrog inhibit?
GnRH secretion.
as placenta secre high lev of progest and estrog, inhib GnRH secret. what is prevented?
FSH and LH secret
menopause is a result of ?
prog decl in funct of ovaries
during menopause less _____________ is prod
estrogen
pineal gland secretes?
melatonin
who secretes melatonin?
pineal gland
melatonin plays a role in?
circadian rhythms
melatonin secret is regulated by?
light and dark cycles in envir
name 3 import gastrointest hormones?
1. gastrin
2. secretin
3. CCK
Kidney hormones?
1. renin- regul aldost secre
2. erthropoietin- resp to decr renal oxyg lev and stim bone marrow to prod rbc
erthyopoietin does what?
its secr by kidney in resp to decr renal oxy level and stim bone marrow to prod rbc
Kidney
REnin- is involv in regul of ?
aldosterone secretion
heart releases what hormones?
atrial natriuretic hormone
atrial natriuretic hormone is made by?
the heart
atrial natriuretic hormone reg?
salt and water bal
THymus is located?
front of neck region
thymus secre?
thymosin dur childhood
thymus regul ____________ dev and different
t lymphocyte
_______________ atrophies by adulthood
thymus
what are 3 chem struct of hormones?
1. pept horm
2. steroid
3. aa derived
what is 2 ways horm affect target c?
1. extracell recep
2. intracell recept
peptide hormones
are synthes as?
large polypeptides
after peptide polypeptide is cut into sm units where is it taken?
the golgi apparatus
pept hormones act as ________________ meesengers
first
pept horm----- bind to spec recept------ ???
convers of ATP to cAMP
ATP to cAMP by what enzyme?
adenylate cyclase
cyclic AMP acts as _______________ messenger
second
cAMP relays messages from _____________ to?
extracell pept hormone to cytoplasm enzymes
cAMP is causes a _____________ effect?
cascade
in a cascade eff, in each step the horm?
the effects of the hormones are amplified
cAMP is inactivated by?
phosphodiesterase
phosphodiesterase does what?
inactiv cAMP
steroid hormones are derived from?
lipids
steroid hormones can pass thr?
cell membr
t or f
steroid hormones are stored
f
t or f
steroid hormones react with cell membr recept
F
ster horm bind to spec recept prot in ?
cytoplasm
steroids
recept-horm complex enters the?
nucleus
ster horm
recept hormone compl enters nucle and then?
dir act express of spec genes
t or f
pept hormones bind w recept and act direct on genes
f
AA are made in ?
cytoplasm of glandular cells
AA hormones act as?
1. first messengers
2. like steroid hormones, entering nucl
T or F
AA deriv hormones act thr sec messengers
T
but some also act as ster hormones.
ADH is a _____________ hormone?
peptide
estrogen, aldosterone are ________________ hormones
steroid
epinephrine is a
a. ster horm
b .aa der horm
c. pept horm
b. aa deriv hormone