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15 Cards in this Set

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Music notes are based on...
Pitch (the psychological aspect of sound related mainlyt to the fundamental frequency)
Octave
The interval between two sounds frequencies having a ration of 2:1
tone height
Percieved pitch based on frequency
Tone Chroma:
Sound quality shared by tones in the same octabe
Melody
Sequence of sounds percieved as coherent structure; learned psychological entity
-system biased towards hearing rhythm
Three basic components to the production of speech:
1. Respiration (exprelling air from lungs)
2. phonation (vary tension in vocal cords)
3. Articulation (manipulate vocal tract)
Vocal tract
The airway above the larynx used for production of speech. Includes oral tract and nasal tract.
Formants
peaks in speech spectrum; listeners use relationship between formant peaks to perceive speech sounds
Spectogram
pattern for sound analysis
Classifying speech sounds:
-vowel
-consonant
-dimensions
1. vowel: open vocal tract
2. consonant: partically obstructed vocal tract
3. dimensions: place of articulation, manner of articulation
Coarticulation
production of one speech sound overlaps with production of the next
segmentation problem
where are the word boundaries?
contextual dependence:
context sensitivity because due to coarticulation there are no invariants
-recgonize speech sounds based on those that percede and follow it
categorical perception
identify sounds in distinct categories (nothing inbetween, no differences in)
spectral contrast
enhancement of contrast between successive sounds to undo assimilation (by coarticulation)
-use multiple acoustic cues for pattern recognition of sounds