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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Within membrane - produces flat bones fo the scull and clavicles. Begins as a vasular sheet of tissue.
Intramembranous Growth
Mostly hyaline with fibrocartilage found in joints and tendon insertions.
Support body and protect internal organs, attachment for muscle, blood formation, salt storage, acid-base balance, detoxification.
Functions of Skeletons
Calcified bone (spongy or compact).
Osseous Tissue
Reddish jelly-like marrow - replaces most yellow marrow in old age.
Gelatinous Marrow
1/3 organic (collagen, proteins, etc.) and 2/3 inorganic 85%.
Bone Matrix
Variety of ridges, spines, depressions, canals, pores, slits, and other surface markings.
Surface Feature
Anklebones, shapes differ from carpals due to weight-bearing role - Calcaneous - heel.
Bone formation, varies depending on teh type of bone.
Adds resistance to tension (bending) - without it, bone becopmes brittle.
Comminuted Linear, Transverse, Oblique, Spiral, Hairline, Depression, Greenstick
Types of Fractures
Kneecap - triangular shaped.
Hemopoetic (produces RBC) looks like blood but thicker. Limited to axial skeleton, shoulder and pelvic gridles, and proximal heads of humerous & femur.
Red Marrow
Forms the ends of long bones and middle layer of most other - Consists of a latticework of trabeculae - network of rods, plates, & spines. Calcified and hard, sponge-like, minimizes bones, Provides mechanical support.
Cancellus (spongy) bone
Open, Closed, Complete, Incomplete, Nondisplaced, Displaced
Fracture Categories
Weight bearing bone of the lower leg - Medial Malleolus.
Contains adipocytes, found in shafts of long bones. No longer produces blood - revert back in anemia.
Yellow Marrow
Longest and largest bone in the body.
Separated from Occipital, parietal, and shenoid by squamous suture.
Temporal Bones (2)
Forms arch on bottom to add spring to step for shock absorption.
Soft tissue occupies the medullary cavity of long bone, spaces withing trabeculae of spongy, larger Haversian canals.
Bone Marrow
(14) Each foot. 3 per toe except 2 per big toe.
Smooth cartilage that covers that covers the epiphysis at articulating end, lubricating fluid, no perichondrium makes a glassy surface for movements.
Hyaline (articular cartilage)
Helps stabilize ankle but does not bear weight - Lateral Malleolus.
Bones are remodeled throughout life in response to stress and growth. Bones removal, bones thicken, bones are replaces, weight of bones does not change unless disease.
Flat Bones
Short Bones
Irregular Bones
Long Bones
Sesamoid Bones
Bones Shapes
Posterior surface, ambdoidal suture joins the parietal and temporal bone.
Occipital Bone (1)
Joints are fused or connected by ligaments-attached to bone - tendons attach skeletal muscle to bones - Articulations where two bones meet.
Regions of the Bone
At birth. begin to form epiphysis - erosion of carilage in all directions. forms hollow holes - elongation occus here through age 21.
Secondary Ossification Center
Makes up 3/4 of skeleton's weight - very dense and hard, found near the surface of bone.
Compact (hard) bone
Hollow cavity within diaphysis line with endosteum 0 reticular CT lining filled with CT yellow (fat storage) and red (blood cells).
Medullary Cavity
Limbs and their girdles (arms, legs, clavicle, scapula, and pelvis)
Broken blood vessels in bone and periosteum form clot.
Hemotoma Formation
Carry blood vessels into surface and remove waste.
Volkman (perforating) Canals
Holes into surface that allow passage for nerves and blood vessels.
Layers of matrix arranged around central canals called Haversian canals - allow for passage of blood vessels & nerves to nourish tissue.
Bone disorders. Treats diseases and injuries of bines, muscles, and joints.
Basic structual unit - Haversian canal and its lamellae.
Diaphysis, Epiphsis, Hyline (articular) Cartilage
Medually Cavity, Periosteum, Epiphyseal Plate
Parts of Long Bones
Composed of 206 adult bones and 270 in newborn(some unfused at birth) sesamoid bones-found withing tendons like knuckles and Wormian bones - formed are sutures close to skull
Within cartilage - produced most of bone in body - underway at birth.
Endochondral Growth
In marrow cavaties.
22 Bones mostly fused by surfaces made up of cranial and facial bones.
Fluid CT.
Fibroblasts deposit collagen in granulation tissue. Soft Callus 9 must be immobilized at this time.
Formation of Granulation Tissue
Periosteum & Tendons.
Ends of long bone, filled with red bone marrow.
Bone Tissue.
Reticular Tissue
1st sign cartilage is transforming - Chrondoctytes near center and swell and die.
Primary Ossification Center
Ligaments and Tendons.
Forehead regions to coronal suture.
Frontal (1)
Innervated by Neuron Fibers.
Hard callus persists for 3-4 months during which osteoblasts bridge gap and dissolve fragments - leaving a slight thickening where healed.
Bones forming the central axis of the body (skull, vetebrate, ribs, sternum)
Axial Region
Main middle shaft, compact bone with a hollow cavity filled with yellow marrow.
Functioning bones cells, former osteoblasts trapped in matrix, no significant role, function to detect, live in tiny cavities, permits communication.
Project into these fossa covered by mucous membrane.
Nasal Conchae
Bone forming cells, secret matrix (collagen) and mineralize` bone - crystallizes and traps.
Tough outer sheath that covers diaphysis/metaphysis surfaces. Strong attachment - Growth and Healing.
Hyaline cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis. Growth zone of bone elongation in childres and teens. Adults growth deplete and stops.
Epiphyseal plate
Between orbital cavities, forms roof of nasal cavity.
Ethmoid (1)
(2) Upper arm bone. Olecranon Fossa - forms elbow
Attach to form of skull, have no direct contact with brain or meninges.
14 Facial Bones
Hip girdle supports lower limbs, consists of 2 Os Coxae.
Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
Cheek bone
Zygomatic (2)
Body - Centrum
Vertebral foramen
Intervertebral Discs
General Structure of the Vertebrate
Butterfly shape, part of eye orbit and cranial fosses.
Sphenoid (1)
Stemum & ribs. Protect contens of the thoracic cavity - Ribs 12 pair.
7 true ribs
12 false ribs - floating ribs
Sternum - breatsbone covering heart.
Thoracic Cage - Ribs
(8) Bones, form the cranium or brain case - Cranial activity.
Cranial Bones
Shoulder girdle, supports the arm -
Clavicle - Collarbone
Scapula - Shoulder blade
Appendicular Skeleton - Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
Forms the posterior part of hard palate.
Palatine (2)
(5) Short bones that attach to each finger from wrist.
Coronal suture to lambdoidal suture. Separated right and left by sagittal suture.
Parietal (2)
(8) Double row of 4 short bones that form the wrist.
Largest facial bone, upper jaw bone - Aveolus holding teeth and roof of mouth and floor of nasal cavity - separates two cavities.
Maxillae (2)
(2) Medial Bones of foremarm forms point of elbow.
The largest of the three conchae.
Inferior Nasal Chonchae (2)
(2) Flat bones of the hip each consists of three fused bones.
Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
Also: Obturator Foreman, Acetabulum, Pelvic Inlet
Os Coxae
Medial eye orbit.
Lacrimal (2)
(14) Each hand, 3 per finger, 2 per thumb.
Rectangular bones that form the bridge of the nose.
Nasal (2)
(2) Lateral bones of forearm - thumb side
Tiny bones created in sutures where skull plates fuse together.
Wormian Bones
2 malleus, 2 incus, 2 stapes, one in each ear within temporal bone - smalles bones in the body. Vrbrated by tympanic membrane.
Auditory Ossicles
Suspended from Styloid process by muscles and ligaments. Attachment site.
33 with 23 separated by fibrocartilage intervertabral discs.
7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Sacral, 4 coccygeal
Vertebral Column
Spaces between unfused crancial bones containing fibrous CT - Intramembranous ossification will be completed here later. Most done by age 2.
Divided into body , ramus, and angle, lower jawbone, holds lower teeth - only movable bone in skull. TMJ
Lower half of nasal septum supports septal cartilage.
Vomer (1)