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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is *Memory*?
Memory refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information, and also to the structures that account for this capacity.
What is *Source Amnesia* or *Source Misattibution*?
The inability to distinguish what you heard or were told about an event later.
Rembering is an *________ ________*
Active Process
What is *Confabulation*?
Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened.
What is *Flasbulb Memorory*?
The vivid remembrance of unusual, shocking or tragic events that seem to be frozen in time. The term captures the surprise, illumination, and seemingly photographic detail that characterize them.
What is *Explicit Memory*
Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information.
what is *Recall*?
The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material.
What is *Recognition*?
The ability to identify previous encountered material.
What is *Implicit Memory*?
Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions.
Define *Priming*
A method for measuring impicit memory in which a person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects performance on the same or another type of task.
Define the *Relearning Method*
A method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material.
The 3 basic memory process are:
Encoding, Storage and Retieval
What is a *Cognitive Schema*?
Mental networks of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning particular topics or aspects of the world.
*Sensory Memory* retains:
incoming sensory information for a second or two, until it can be processed further.
*Short Term Memory - STM* holds:
a limited amount of information for a brief period of time, perhaps up to 30 seconds, unless a conscious effort is made to keep it there longer.
*Long Term Memory - LTM* accounts for:
longer storage - from a few minutes to decades.
What is the *Three Memory System*?
Information that does not transfer out of sensory memory of short-term memory is assumed to be forgotten forever. Once in long-term memory, information can be retrieved for use in analyzing incoming sensory information or performing mental operations in short-term memory.
What is *Parallel Distributed Processing* or *Connectionist* Model?
A model of memory in which knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed a vast network and all operating in parallel.
What is *Sensory Memory*?
A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information.
What is *Pattern Recognition*
The identification of a stimulus on the basis of information already contained in long-term memory.
*Working Memory* is:
A memory system comprising short-term memory plus the mental process that control retrieval of information from long-term memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given task.
What is a *Chunk*?
A meaningful unit of information; it may be composed of smaller units. Sort of like a *packet* of data in Data Networking.
*Procedural Memories* are:
Memories for the performance of actions of skills - *knowing how*
*Declarative Memories* are:
Memories of FACTS; they include semantic and episodic memories.
What are *Semantic Memories*?
Sub-variety of Declarative Memories, are memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts and propositions.
What is an *Episodic Memory*?
A sub-variety of the Declarative Memories; Episodic Memories are of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred.
What is the *Serial-Position Effect*?
The tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list.
What is *Long-Term Potenation*?
A long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic responsiveness, thought to be a biological mechanism of long-term memory.
What is *Consolidation*?
The process by which a long-term memory becomes durable and stable.
*Frontal Lobes* are associated with:
Short-term memory
Prefontal Cortex, parts of temporal lobes are associated with?
Efficient coding (processing) of words and pictures.
The Hippocamus is associated with:
Formation of long-term declarative memories.
The cerebellum is associated with:
Formation and retention of simple classically conditioned responses.
The cerebral cortex is associated with:
Storage of long-term memories.
*Rehersal* is a technique that:
Assists in keeping information in short-term memory and increasing the chances of long-term retention; the review and practice of material while you are learning it.
*Maintenance Rehersal* is:
Rote repetition of material in order to maintain it's availability.
*Elaborative Rehersal* is:
Association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable.
*Deep Processing* is:
The encoding of infromation, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus.
*Mnemonics* is:
Strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or a formula.
What are the 5 mechanisms to account for forgetting? DRICR
1. Decay, 2. Replacement, 3. Interference, 4. Cue-Dependant, and 5. Repression - DRICR
the *Decay Therory* is:
The theory that information in memory eventually disappers if it is not acdcessed; it applies better to short-term than to long-term memory.
*Replacement Theory* is:
Holds that NEW Information entering memory can wipe out the old information, just as rerecording on an autdiotape, obliterating the original material.
*Retroactive Interference* is:
Holds that forgetting occurs because similar items interfere or compete with one another in storage or retrieval.
What is *Proactive Interference*?
Forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material.
*Cue-Dependent Forgetting* is:
The inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall.
What is *State-Dependent Memory*?
The tendency to remember something when the rememberer is in the same physical or mental state as during the original learning or experience.
Define *Psychogenic Amenesia*:
The partial or complete loss of memory (due to non-organic causes) for threatening information or traumatic experiences.
Define *Repression*:
The psychoanalytic (Freud) theory, the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious.
What is *Childhood - Infantile - Amesia*?
The inability to remember events and experiences that occured during the first two or three years of life.