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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
2 ways joints can be classified
1)structure- how they hold bones together
2)function- how they allow 2 bones to move
3 ways a joint holds 2 bones together
1) synovial- joint cavity w/ synovial fluid
2)fibrous- no cavity and collagenous adhesive
3) cartilaginous- no cavity and cartilagenous adhesive
3 ways 2 bones move across a joint
1) diathrosis- freely moving
2) amphiarthrosis- slightly moveable
3) synarthrosis- little or no movement
flexion vs. extension vs. hyperextension
flexion- bending knee
extension- straightens knee
hyperextension- extending joint beyond 180 (backwards)
abduction vs. adduction
abduction- away
adduction- toward
protraction vs. retraction
protraction- forward
retraction- backward
inversion vs. eversion
inversion- inward
eversion- outward
elevation vs. depression
elevation- raises
depression- lowers
dorsiflexion vs. plantar flexion
dorsiflexion- lift toes upward
plantar flexion- point toes downward
circumduction vs. rotation
circumduction- shoulder remains stationary while hand rotates
rotation- bone turns on longitudinal axis
sole of foot: inversion vs. eversion
inversion- soles are turned medially
eversion- soles are turned laterally
_______ describes what a limb can move and why it can't move it
biomechanics
_______ shorten their length to exert force on a tendon (effort)
muscle contractions
what the muscle attempts to move against gravity, elasticity, or other load
resistance
fixed point that motion occurs across
fulcrum
distance from fulcrum to muscle insertion
effort arm
distance from fulcrum to resistance site
resistance arm
By shortening the length of a muscle, contractions create ______. Tendons then transmit force to bones at the _______.
force
insertion
______ limit the range of motion
ligaments
1st class lever of muscle
-generate force as teeter totter
-effort (muscle), fulcrum, resistance (gravity)
2nd class lever of muscle
-generate force as wheel barrow
-fulcrum, resistance, effort
3rd class lever
-generate force as tweezers
-resistance, effort, fulcrum
In the 3rd class lever, the further away the fulcrum the greater the __________
mechanical advantage
Compare mechanical advantage, power, and speed of 2nd lever vs. 3rd lever
2nd lever- high ma, high power, low speed
3rd lever- low ma, low power, high speed
Ultimately _________ describes how easy it will be to accomplish a desired range of motion.
mechanical advantage
_______ is the muscle attachment at the stationary end
origin
______ is the muscle attachment at the mobile end
insertion
_____ is the muscle that produces most of the force
agonist
____ opposes the agonist and relaxes the muscle
antagonist
____ gives extra force to muscle and stabilizes muscle
synergist
______ helps hold things in place
fixator
_____ muscle is entirely contained within a particular region, having both its origin and insertion there
intrinsic
_____ muscle acts upon a designated region but has its origin elsewhere
extrinsic
The flexor digitorum is an ex of an extrinsic or intrinsic muscle?
extrinsic
Does actin or myosin allow more light to pass through?
actin b/c it's thinner
How many nuclei does muscle fiber contain and what is the size of muscle fiber?
many nuclei
very large
______ is a layer of areolar tissue that surrounds muscle fibers
endomysium
_____ seperates fascicles
perimysium
_____ is the connective tissue layer that covers muscle as a whole
epimysium
______ attaches muscle to bone
tendon
______ is collagenous tissue that binds one organ to another
ligament
How many different muscles compose the skeletal system?
600
_____ are clusters of actin and myosin inside the bone
fibrils
_____ is stuff outside muscle cell
fiber
Arrange muscle structure from smallest to largest
Actin/myosin < filaments < myofibrils < myofiber < endomysium < perimysium < fascia < muscle attached to bone by tendons
5 ways myofibers in the muscle fascia of a muscle can be oriented
1) fusiform- generate force on single angle
-ex: biceps brachii
2) parallel- ex: rectus abdominus
3) convergent- fan shaped
-pectoralis major
4) pennate- feather shaped
-ex: Palmar interosseous
5) circular- rings
-ex: Orbicularis oculi