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41 Cards in this Set

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Politics
The struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant or withhold benifits or privileges.
Institution
An ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society.
Government
The institution in which decisons are made that reslove conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges.It is unique because it as the ultimate authority within society.
Order
A state of peace and security.Maintaining order by protecting members of society from violence and criminal activity is the oldest purpose of government.
Liberty
The greatest freedom of individual that is consistent with the freedom of other individuals in the society.
Authority
The right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience.
Legitimacy
Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
Totalitarian Regime
A form of government that controls all aspects of te political and social life
Authoritarianism
A type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler.Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the governmnet's control.
Aristocracy
Rule by the "best": in reality rule by an upper class.
Democracy
A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people
Direct Democracy
A system of Democracy in which political decisions are made by the epople directly, rather than by their elected representitives; probably attained most easily in small political communities.
Legislature
A govenmental body primarily responsible for the making of laws
Initiative
A procedure by which voters can propse a law or constitiutional amendment
Recall
A procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from the state office before his or her term has expired.
consent of the people
The idea that governments and laws derive their legitimacy from the consent of the governed.
Republic
A form of government in which sovereignty rests with the people, as opposed to a king or monarch.
Popular Sovereignty
The concept taht ultimate political authority is based on the will of the people.
democratic republic
A republic in which representitives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies.
representative democracy
A form of government in which representitives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies; may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role.
Universal Suffrage
The right of all adults to vote for their representitives.
Majority
More than 50 percent.
Majority Rule
A basic principle of democracy asserted that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determine policies.
Limited Government
The principle the powers of government should be limited, usually by institutional checks.
Majoritarianism
A political theory holding that in dmeocracy, the governmnet ought to do what the majority of the people want.
Elite theory
A perspective holding that society is ruled by a small number of people who exercise power to futher their self-interest.
Pluralism
A theory that viewa politics as a conflict among interest groups.Political decision making is characterized by bargaining and compromise.
Political Culture
The collection of beliefs and attitudes toward government and the political process held by the community or nation.
Political Socialization
The process through which individuals learn a set of polictical attitudes and form opinions about social issues.The family and the educational system are two of the most important forces in the political socialization process.
Dominant Culture
The values, customs, and language established by the group or groups that traditionally have controlled politics and government in a society.
Equality
As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth.
Property
Anything that is or may be subject to ownership.As conceived bythe political philosopher John Locke, the right to property is a natural right superior to himan law (laws made by government).
Capitalism
an economic system characterized by the private ownershio of weath- creating assets and also byfree markets and freedom of contract
Ideology
A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or governmnet
Conservation
A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national governmnet in helping individuals, support for raditional values and lifestyles, and a curious response to change
Liberation
A set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change.
Socialism
A political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality. Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over by the government or by employeee cooperatives.
libertarianism
A political ideolog nased on skepticism or opposition toward almost all governmnet activities.
Communism
A revoulutionary variant of socialism that favors a ppartisan (and often totalitarian) dictatorship, government controlof all enterprise, and the replacement of free markets by central planning.
Fascism
A 20th century ideology-often totalitarian- that exalts the national collective united behind an absoulute ruler. Fascism rejects liberal individualism, values action over rational deliberation and glorifies war.
hispanic
someone who can claim a heritage from a spanish-speaking country. The term is used only in the US or other countries that recieve immigrants- spanish speakng persons living in spanish speaking countries do not normally apply the term to themselves