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64 Cards in this Set

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What is the normal bonding pattern for hydrogen?
One valence electron.
One bond.
No lone pairs.
What is the normal bonding pattern for a halogen?
7 valence electrons.
One bond.
6 lone pairs
What is the normal bonding pattern for nitrogen?
5 valence electrons.
3 bonds
1 lone pair.
What is the normal bonding pattern for oxygen?
6 valence electrons
2 bonds.
2 lone pairs.
What is the normal bonding pattern for hydrogen cation?
1 bond
+1 charge
no lone pairs
What is the normal bonding pattern for hydrogen anion?
1 bond
-1 charge
1 lone pair.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the carbocation?
3 bonds
no lone pairs
+1 charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the carboanion?
3 bonds
1 lone pair
-1 charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the C dot ion?
3 bonds
1 single electron
no net charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the nitrogen cation?
4 bonds
no lone pairs
+1 charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the nitrogen anion?
2 bonds
2 lone pairs
-1 charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the oxygen anion?
1 bond.
3 lone pairs.
-1 charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for the oxygen cation?
3 bonds.
1 lone pair.
+1 charge.
What is the normal bonding pattern for a halogen anion?
0 bonds
4 lone pairs.
-1 charge
Alcohol
What is the name of this functional group?
Aldehyde.
What is the name of this functional group?
Carboxylic acid
What is the name of this functional group?
Ether
What is the name of this functional group?
Ketone
What is the name of this functional group?
What are isomers?
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of bonding in their atoms.
What are the two main types of isomers?
1. Constitutional isomers.
2. Steroisomers.
What are constitutional isomers?
Compounds with different connections between the atoms.
What are stereoisomers?
Compounds with same connections betwen the atoms but different arragement of atoms in space.
What are the three different relevant types of orbitals for organic chemistry?
1. S-orbitals
2. P- orbitals
3. D-orbitals
What are s-orbitals?
Spherical in shape, they can only have 2 electrons in the orbital. 2s orbitals have 2 nodes, 3s orbitals have 3.
What are p-orbitals?
Dumbell shaped, 3 different spatial orientations, can only hold 2 in each lobe (for a total of 6 for all p-orbitals.
What are d-orbitals?
4 Clovershaped, 1 dumbbell w/spherical center.
What are the two different types of covalent bonding?
1. sigma bond
2. pi bond
What is a sigma bond?
A covalent bond where the electrons are centered about the axis between the two nuclei.
What is a pi bond?
A covalent bond where the shared electrons occupy regions above and below axis between two nuclei.
What are hybrid orbitals?
Orbitals where the wave function s of the different oribitals combine to form new orbitals.
What is an sp-orbital?
A combination of an s-orbital and a p-orbital.
What is an sp2-orbital?
A combination of an s-orbital and 2 p-orbitals.
What is an sp3-orbital?
A combination of an s-orbital and 3 p-orbitals.
What are the four types of bonding?
1. Ionic
2. Polar covalent
3. Non-polar covalent
4. Hydrogen
What is an ionic bond?
Electrons are given away ... not shared and held together by +/- attractive force of the ions.
What is a polar covalent bond?
Shared electron bond where the electrons are strongly attracted to one element more than another.
What is a non-polar covalent bond?
Shared electron bond where the electrons are equally distributed about all elements.
What is hydrogen bonding?
An attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom and an unshared electron pair on another atom.
What is the trend in the Periodic Table for valence electrons?
The group number is equal to the number of valence electrons for the element.
What trends are associated with an elements position on the Periodic Table with respect to electronegativity?
1. Electronegativity increases to the right in periods.
2. Electronegativity increases as you travel up the group.
What are the rules for drawing Lewis structures?
1. Based on molecular formula, count the number of valence electrons.
2. Given the connectivity, connect the bonded atoms by a shared electron pair or a dash.
3. Count the number of electrons in the bonds and get the remainder.
4. Add remainder to the atoms to get 8 in valence shell.
5. Calculate the formal charge.
What is the formula to calculate formal charge?
FC = Group # - (# unshared electrons - 1/2 # shared electrons)
What are line structures?
Structures with all C's and H's omitted.
What are condensed structures?
Structures which show all the structural units (e.g. CH3)
What is VSEPR?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repuslion ... a method for determining molecular geometry.
What are the important principles of VSEPR?
1. Electron pairs in carbon always form at tetrahedral angles.
2. Molecular shape dependent upon the bonded atoms and NOT their unshared pairs.
What are the most important VSEPR shapes in organic chemistry?
1. Tetrahedral
2. Pyramidal
3. Trigonal Planar
4. Bent
What is the trend in association between bond angles and unshared electron pair repulsion.
2 bonded pairs < 1 bonded pair + 1 unshared pair < 2 unshared pairs
What are the two different types of stereoisomers?
1. diastereoisomers
2. enantiomers
What are diastereoisomers?
Non-mirror image stereoisomers.
What are enantiomers?
Mirror image stereoisomers.
What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid?
A substance that donates an H+.
What is a Bronsted-Lowry base?
A substance that accepts an H+.
What is a Lewis acid?
An electron pair acceptor.
What is a Lewis base?
An electron pair donator.
What is the acid-dissociation constant?
Ka = [H30+][A-]/[HA]

The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid in water.
What is the pKa?
- log Ka
What is the relationship between Ka and acid strength?
The larger the Ka the stronger the acid.
What is the relationship between pKa and acid strength?
The smaller the pKa the stronger the acid.
What are the indicators of acid strength?
1. H-A bond strength.
2. Electronegativity.
3. Electron delocalization in conjugate base.
What is the trend associated with the H-A bond strength?
The weaker the H-A bond the stronger the acid.
What is the trend associated with electronegativity?
The more electronegative an H+ substrate the stronger an acid it is.
Why does electron delocalization increase acidity?
Affects the equilibrium of the reaction by stabilizing the conjugate base pulling equilibrium towards it.