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45 Cards in this Set

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molecule
two or more joined atoms of the same or different elements.
"Molecules of life" (5)
complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA
Cell
the smallest unit of life that can live and reproduce on its own or as a part of a multicelled organism. It has an outer membrane, DNA and other components
tissue
organized aggregation of cells and substances interacting in a specialized activity. (such as white cells that make up bone tissue)
organ
structural unit made of two or more tissues interacting in some task
organ system
organs interacting physically, chemically, or both in some tast. Parrotfish skin is an integumentary system with tissue layers, organs such as glands, and other parts
multicelled organism
individual made of different types of cells. Cells of most multicelled organisms, including this Red Sea parrotfish, are organized as tissues, organs and organ systems.
population
group of single celled or multicelled individuals of the same species occupying a specified area.
community
all populations of all species occulying a specified area. for example a aprt of a coral reef in the Gulf of Aqaba at the northern end of the Red Sea.
ecosystem
a community that is interacting with its physical environment. It has inputs and outputs of energy and materials. Reef ecosystems that flourish in warm, clear, seawater throught the middle east.
biosphere
all regions of the earths waters, crust, and atmosphere that hold organisms. In the vast universe earth is a rare planet, without its abundance of free-flowing waterthere would be no life.
Living things are only made up of
nucleic acids, proteins, complex carbohydrates and lipids.
DNA
DNA holds info for building proteins from smaller molecules, the amino acids.
Why are proteins so important??
Many proteins are structural materials, regulators of cell activities, and enzymes.
Enzymes
Enzymes are the cells main worker molecules. They build, split, and rearrange the molcules of life in was that keep cells alive. Without enzymes nothing much can be done with DNA's information.
Inheritance
means acquisition of traits after parents transmit their DNA to offspring.
reproduction
refers to actual mechanisms by which parents transmit DNA to their offspring.
development
the transformation of the first cell of a new individual into a multicelled adult, typically with many different tissues and organs.
energy
the capacity to do work
metabolism
a process where every cell acquires and uses energy to maintain itself, grow and make more cells.
producers
producers are plants and other organisms that make their own food molecules from simple raw materials.
consumers
are animals and decomposers. They cannot make their food on their own, they survive by feeding on tissues of producers and other organisms.
decomposers
mostly the kinds of bacteria and fungi that break down sugars and other molecules to simpler materials.
How does energy flow?
Energy flows from the environment, through producers, then consumers, and then back to the environment.
receptors
receptors are molecules and structures the detect stimuli, which are specific kinds of energy. Different receptors respond to different stimuli, which are specific kinds of energy.
Stimulus
a stimulus may be sunlight energy, chemical protein energy ( as when a substance is more concentrated outside a cell than inside)
homeostasis
organisms keep the internal environment within a range that cells can tolerate.
species
millions of kinds of organisms
Who devised a scheme for classifying organisms?
Carolus Linneaus
genus
the first part of naming a species. each genus is one or more species grouped together on the basis of a number of traits that are unique to that group alone.
The 2nd part to naming and classifying organisms refers to?
it refers to a particular species within the genus.
The three domains of classifying organisms are:
archaea, bacteria and eukarya
archaea
1.single celled. 2.prokaryotic
3.live in boiling ocean water, freezing desert rocks,etc.
bacteria
1.single celled, 2.prokaryotic,
3. aka eubacteria. which means true bacteria. They are far more common than archaens, they live throughout the world in diverse habitats. By far the most common prokaryotes; most metabolically diverse organisms on earth.
Prokaryotes
do not have a nucleus, includes diverse producers or consumers, - theirs shows the greatest metabolic diversity
eukaryotes
plants, fungi, animals and protists are members of eukarya, which means they have nuclei. eukaryotes are generally larger and far more complex than the prokaryotes
plants
multi-celled, photosynthetic producers. They can make their own food by using simple raw materials and sunlight as an energy source.
fungi
single celled and multicelled eukaryotes, mostly decomposers (also parasites and pathogens) and consumers witha distinct way of feeding. they secrete enzymes that digest food outside the fungal body, then their individual cells absorb the digested nutrients.
animals
multicelled eukaroyotic consumers that ingest tissues or juices of other organisms. Different kinds of animals are herbivores (grazers), carnivores (meat eaters), scavengers, and parasites.
protists
diverse single celled and multicelled eukaryotic species that range from microscopic cells to giant seaweeds.
mutations
causes variation in traits. these are heritable changes in DNA.
evolution
means heritable change in a line of descent
diversity
refers to variations in traits that have accumulated in lines of descent.
natural selection
1. populations tend to increase, past the capacity of their environment so the members must compete for resources
2. individuals of natural populations differ from one another in the details of their shared traits. Most variation has heritable traits.
3. - when individuals differ in their ability to survive and reproduce the traits help them do so tend to become more common in the population over time.
the scientific method
observe, formulate hypothesis, make a prediction (if-then statement), test accuracy of prediction and build models, check to see whats gone wrong, repeat the tests or devise new ones, objectively analyze and report the test results, and the conclusions you have drawn from them