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10 Cards in this Set

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Christopher Colombus
Born in 1451, son of an Italian weaver. Taught himself geography, navigation, and Latin. By 1480 he was an experienced sailor, wanted to reach the Indies by sailing across the Atlantic. Ferdinand and Isabella supported him, but he had to raise the money for the expedition. Used the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Niña. October 12, 1492 (33 days at sea), the Bahamas were spotted by Columbus and named San Salvador (Blessed Savior). Called island people los indios. Next, he found Cuba, Cipangu (Japan), and Española (Hispaniola, now Haiti and Dominican Republic), the Lesser Antilles. December 24th, 1492. Columbus decided to return home, left forty of his men and took a dozen natives as gifts to the royal couple. 1493: Columbus took 17 ships, livestock, and 1200 men across the Atlantic. The men Columbus left had committed heinous crimes, and when the Indians attacked by killing 10 Spaniards, Columbus decimated the village and sent 550 of the natives on slave ships. Next Columbus found the Lesser Antilles, Cuba, and Jamaica, and then returned to Spain in 1496. 1498: Columbus found Trinidad and the north coast of South America. 1502: Columbus sailed along the coasts of Central America, was marooned in Jamaica for a year, and returned to Spain in 1504.
Bartolome de las Casas
Priest in Hispaniola and a bishop in Mexico. Wrote A Brief Revelation of the Destruction of the Indies (1552).
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), made a sphere of influence for Spain west of the Cape Verde Islands. Ferdinand Magellan wanted to find a passage through or around South America so that he could prove that the line of demarcation from the Treaty of Tordesillas spread around the other side of the Earth. He left Spain in 1519 and found Guam and the Philippines where he later died.
Protestant Reformation
1517: Martin Luther posted his “Ninety-five Theses”. He criticized the sale of indulgences, and preached a direct relationship with God. The Pope expelled Luther in 1520, and many people converted to Lutheranism. Also, new sects were formed such as the Anabaptists (no infant baptism, separate church and state), Mennonites, Amish, Dunkers, Familists, Schwenkfelders, Baptists, and Quakers. Calvinism: John Calvin wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536). He said that everyone was born with Adam’s original sin, but only the predetermined few could be saved. He stressed morals and hard work, made a group of elders called the presbytery. Later England: Henry VII (Defender of the Faith) wanted to annul his marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon for failing to produce a male heir. However, the Pope refused, as Catherine was the King of Spain’s (Charles V) aunt. He broke off from Rome and chose a new archbishop of Canterbury, who allowed the annulment. When Henry VIII’s daughter Elizabeth came into power, England became Protestant.
Martin Luther
Martin Luther posted his “Ninety-five Theses”. He criticized the sale of indulgences, and preached a direct relationship with God. The Pope expelled Luther in 1520, and many people converted to Lutheranism. Also, new sects were formed such as the Anabaptists (no infant baptism, separate church and state), Mennonites, Amish, Dunkers, Familists, Schwenkfelders, Baptists, and Quakers.
Henry VIII
Henry VIII (Defender of the Faith) wanted to annul his marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon for failing to produce a male heir. However, the Pope refused, as Catherine was the King of Spain’s (Charles V) aunt. He broke off from Rome and chose a new archbishop of Canterbury, who allowed the annulment.
"enclosure movement"
Commoners' population increased, and "enclosure" policies (tenants were evicted so sheep could be kept)led to more beggars and rogues.
Francis Drake
1577 Francis Drake rounded South America to raid Spanish towns, spent seven weeks in Drake’s Bay in “New Albion” (California). Was knighted in 1580.
Jamestown
1606- King James I chartered the Virginia Co. (1st colony of London and 2nd colony of Plymouth). London group colonized Virginia (Liz I called "Virgin Queen") in 1607. Called Jamestown. Captain John Smith ("he that will not work shall not eat") mapped the Chesapeake region. Governor: Lord de la Warr, interim gov'r Sir Thomas Gates. "Starving Time" winter 1609-1610. 400 settlers went down to 60. June 1610, de la Warr sent 150 men back to Virginia. Gates wrote "Lawes Divine, Moral, and Martiall" (Dale's code) in 1611. "headright policy" to bring people to Virginia (50 acres of land). 1619: 90 women sold for 125 lbs of tobacco. 1607: 14,000 migrated to Virginia. 1642: Sir William Berkeley became gov'r.
The Lost Colony
1584, Raleigh went to the Outer Banks and discovered Roanoke Island. John White became governor of Roanoke but left to get supplies in England. When he returned the village was pillaged and abandoned. “Lost Colony” may have fallen prey to a draught, or ransacked by Indians or Spaniards