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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Motivation.
Biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate/direct behavior within you.
What are the 3 major characteristics of motivation?
1-Activation (initation of behavior)

2-Persistance (continued efforts to achieve a goal)

3-Intensity (vigor of responding with behavior)
What is motivation closely tied with?
Emotional processes, vice versa.
What are the 5 major theories of motivation?
Explain the Instinct Theory of Motivation and what is it's limitation.
-Says certain behaviors are inborn and are due to evolutionary programming.
-Limitation is that they merely describe/label behaviors and do not explain them.
What are some human instincts?
Explain the Drive Theory of Motivation and its limitations.
-Says behavior is motivated by desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet needs (hunger/thirst)
-Limitations are people engage in behaviors that are not a reflection of an internal drive (ex. eat when you are not hungry)
Explain the Incentive theory of motivation and its limitations.
-Says bahvior is motivated by pull of external goals (rewards)
-Limitations are that many behaviors are not motivated by any external incentives (sometimes we just do things to do them)
Explain the Arousal theory of motivation and its limitations.
-Says people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal neither too high/too low.
-Limitations are that the optimial level or arousal varies from person/person time/time situation/situation.
Explain the Humanistiv theory of motivation and its limitations.
-Says importance of psychological and cognitive factors (people are motivated to realize their full potential)
Define Drive.
-Drive is a need or internal motivational state that triggers behavior to reduce need to achieve homeostasis.
What is the concept of Drive and how is it related to Homeostatis?
-Drive need are aid to push us to maintain homeostatis by behaving in certain ways to reduce this drive.
What are sensation seekers and what are the characteristics of a sensation seeker.
-People who are motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with certain activties.
-Seek out varied, novel, and unique sensory experience because they find the high levels of arousal pleasurable.
What motivational factors influence our eating behavior?
A compley interaction of biological, social, and psychological factors.
Define Glucose.
Blood sugar that is the main source of energy for all mammals.
Define Insulin.
Hormone that regulates blood levels of glucose. This mantains a stable body weight.
Define Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).
When the body is at rest the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions.
Define Adipose Tissue.
Body fat that is the main source of stored energy.
What is energy homeostais?
Long term matching of food intake with energy usage.
Define Ghrelin.
Hormone that stimulates appeitte.
Explain the Set Point Theory.
-Body has optimal body weight that the body defends from becoming higher/lower by regulating feelings of hunger.
What causes obesity?
-Too little sleep
-Highly patatable food (yummy)
-Supersize it
-Cafeteria Diet
-Leptin Resistence
-Weight cycling (yo-yo)
What two disorder disrupt normal eating behavior?
What is the one big difference between anorexia and bulimia?
Bulimics stay within a normal body weight/may be slightly overweight and they usually recognize that they have an eating disorder.
What are the 4 stages of human sexual respone?
1-Excitement (caused by sexually arousing stimuli, contact, etc)

2-Plateau (physical arousal builds)

3-Orgasm (blood pressure and heartrate peak)

4-Resolution (arousal subsides)
What may cause sexual orientation?
-brain structure
-cross gender play as a child (homosexual)
-sexual orientation develops at an early stage
Homosexuality is not due to....
---unpleasant early gay experience or result of an abnormal relationship with parents
What are sexual behaviors in adults characterized by?
-mosts adults are married by 30
-young adults have more sexual partners nowadays
-married people have more sex
-vaginal intercourse is preferred.
What are some sexual disfunctions in women?
-Low sexual desire/arousal
-Female orgasmix disorder, constant inability to orgasm
What are some sexual disfunctions in men?
-Premature ejaculation
-Male erectile disorder
What are the 5 stages of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
1-Self actualization (full potential)

2-Esteem Needs (feelings of accomplishment

3-Belonging ness and love need (friends and intimate relationships)

4-Saftey needs (security and saftey)

5-Physiological Needs (food , shelter, water, etc.)
What is the Self Determination Theory?
Deci and Ryan's theory that says optimal human functioning can occur only when the psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are met.
What are the 3 stages of the Self Determination Theory?
1-Automony (need to determine, control, and organize ones goals and behaviors for harmony)

2-Competence (need to learn/master tasks)

3-Relatedness (need to feel attached to others)
Define the Intrisic motivation.
Desire to engage in tasks that the person finds challanging/enjoyable for its own sake.
Define the Extrinsic motivation.
External influences on behavior (rewards, consequences, etc)
Explain Competence motivation.
displayed when a person strives to use his skills to have control a situation.
Explain Achievement motivation.
Desire to direct one's behavior towards succeeding at a task.
Define Emotion.
psychological state that involves subjective experience, phsycological response, and a behavioral/expressive response.
What are the 3 compents of Emotion?
1-Subjective experience
2-Physiological Experience
3-Behavioral/Expressive experience.
What are some functions of emotion?
-trigger motivated behavior
-descion making
-purposeful behavior
-setting goals.
What are Basic Emotions?
Most fundamental set of emotion cateories that are inborn, and culturally universal.
What are sthe basic emotions?
Explain Display rules.
Social and cultural regulations governing emotional expression (facial)
What are the 3 major theories of emotion?
1-James-Lange Theory of Emotion

2-Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

3-Cognitive-Mediational Theory of Emotion.
Explain the James-Lange Theory of Emotion.
-The theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes.

-Says we dont tremble because we're scared, we're scared because we tremble.
Explain the Two-Factor of Emotion.
-Says emotion is the interaction of physcological arousal plus a cognitive label and appraisal is a trigger for emotional responses.
Explain the Cognitive-Mediational Theory of Emotion.
Says emotions result from cognitive appraisal of a situation's effect on a person's well being.