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61 Cards in this Set

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What is a mandate?
land that is to be governed by an outside power on behalf of the
League of Nations until it is ready for independence.
Zionist
a member of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state.
self determination
the right of a people to decide their own political future.
Ottoman Empire
an empire built by the Ottoman Turks that did not impose the
Islamic religion on non-Muslims. The empire included most of the Middle East and was the world’s last great empire.
West Bank
A disputed territory of southwest Asia between Israel and Jordan west of the Jordan River. Part of Jordan after 1949, it was occupied by Israel in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. In 1994 an accord between Israel and the PLO was signed, giving Palestinians limited self-rule and requiring measured withdrawal of Israeli troops from the West Bank.
Gaza Strip
a coastal region at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean bordering Israel and Egypt
Arabs
A member of a Semitic people inhabiting Arabia, whose language and Islamic religion spread widely throughout the Middle East and northern Africa from the seventh century or a member of an Arabic-speaking people.
Intifada
An uprising among Palestinian Arabs of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, beginning in late 1987 and continuing sporadically into the early 1990s, in protest against continued Israeli occupation of these territories
PLO
the abbreviation for Palestine Liberation Organization. It is the Palestinian government in exile. It was led by Yasser Arafat.
Jews
A Jew can be many things, n adherent of Judaism as a religion or culture, a member of the widely dispersed people originally descended from the ancient Hebrews and sharing an ethnic heritage based on Judaism, or a native or inhabitant of the ancient kingdom of Judah.
David Ben-Gurion
was the first prime minister of Israel. He was the one that said that if they didn’t control the desert, the desert would control them.
Ariel Sharon
is the Israeli prime minister. He chose a controversial path in the Israeli Palestinian Conflict by choosing the passive road
Balfour Declaration
the declaration states : "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country
drip irrigation
a process by which precisely controlled amounts of water drip directly onto plants from pipes, thus preserving precious water resources in dry areas.
potash
a mineral used in explosives and fertilizers comprised of table salt, bromine, and other minerals from the Dead Sea. Israel has built processing plants to extract this mineral
Fertile Crescent
A region in the Middle East where farming and the first civilizations developed. It stretches across the northern part of the Syrian Desert and extends from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The civilizations of Egypt, Phoenicia, Assyria, and Babylonia developed in this area, which was also the site of numerous migrations and invasions.
militia
a citizen army
anarchy
political disorder and violence; lawlessness
embargo
a strict restriction of trade with other countries
infrastructure
the basic support facilities of a community or country, such as bridges, roads, power plants, and schools
alaj system
an ancient system of underground and surface canals
Gulf States
The countries bordering the Persian Gulf in southwest Asia, including Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Oman
Mecca
A city of western Saudi Arabia near the coast of the Red Sea. The birthplace of Muhammad, it is the holiest city of Islam and a pilgrimage site for all devout believers of the faith. Population: 689,010
Kaaba
A Muslim shrine in Mecca toward which the faithful turn to pray
Hajj
A pilgrimage to Mecca during Dhu’l Hijja, made as an objective of the religious life of a Muslim
Mohammed
American activist and leader of the Nation of Islam. He was believed to have been talked to by an angel that was sent by Allah
secular
, not related to religion. In the 1970s and 1980s, parties believed that Turkey’s government should be secular, or that it should be run without religious influences and Islamic parties fought one another for power.
shah
the title of the former ruler of Iran. When Reza Khan seized power in 1925, he declared himself Iran’s shah
Ayatollah
religious leader among Shiite Muslims. Some conservative ayatollas though that Iran should be governed in strict obedience to Islamic law.
OPEC
the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries that meets regularly to decide how much oil to sell at which price. Most of the Middle East and Venezuela are in OPEC.
theocracy
a government ruled by or subject to religious authority
chadors
long black cloaks that women are supposed to wear in Iran
Palestinian Israeli conflict
This is and ongoing conflict between the Arabs and Jews in Israel. This conflict is over land, or so it seems. The Jews and Arabs have fought many wars against each other, and this war is still going on. The Arabs and Jews have been working on peace treaties
Democracy
government in which political power is retained by all the people, a government of the people, by the people, and for the people
Republic
a representative democracy. Elected officials exercise power vested in hem by sovereign citizens
Constitutional monarchy
government in which the powers of the monarch are limited by and defined by a constitution
Theocracy
government in which the clergy rules or in which a god is the civil ruler
Oligarchy
rule of the government by a few persons
Totalitarianism
system in which a highly centralized government is controlled exclusively by one partly and maintained by political suppressions
Fascism
one-party system of government with individual subjected to the control of the state often by secret police, military police, censorship and government control of finance, industry, and commerce
Feudalism
a Medieval system in which vassals received land holdings in exchange for military or other service and homage to their lords
Matriarchy
society ruled by a woman with descent and succession being traced through the female’s line
Three branches of government
the three branches of government are the executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive runs the state, the judicial enforces the law, and legislative make the laws.
Three levels of government
there are three levels of government, federal, local, and state. The federal government takes care of the whole country, the state government takes care of only that certain state, and the local government takes care of a city or county
Checks and balances
a complex system to ensure that no one branch of the United States government would exceed the power and authority of another.
Declaration of independence
the declaration of the Congress of the Thirteen United States of America, on the 4th of July, 1776, by which they formally declared that these colonies were free and independent States, not subject to the government of Great Britain.
Preamble
a preliminary statement, especially the introduction to a formal document that serves to explain its purpose
Constitution
both the principles that define a system of government and to the written document that establishes such a system
Bill of Rights
a statement of rights and privileges guaranteed to a people against violation by the state, especially in the U.S. it refers to the first ten amendments to the Constitution, also the Universal Declaration of Human Rights from the U.N.
Resolution
a court decision
Referendum
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
Petition
a solemn supplication or request to a superior authority; an entreaty.
Term
a period of time that is assigned to a person to serve
Veto
the vested power or constitutional right of one branch or department of government to refuse approval of measures proposed by another department, especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature and thus prevent or delay its enactment into law
Civil disobedience
Refusal to obey civil laws in an effort to induce change in governmental policy or legislation, characterized by the use of passive resistance or other nonviolent means
Civil rights
The rights belonging to an individual by virtue of citizenship, especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and by subsequent acts of Congress, including civil liberties, due process, equal protection of the laws, and freedom from discrimination
Electoral College
the group of individuals who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
Platform
a statement of issues announced at party conventions
Democrat
one who favors a democracy as the best form of government or a member of the Democratic Party
Republican
one who favors a republic as the best form of government or a member of the Republican Party
Presidential Election 2004
the Presidential election that took place on November 2, 2004 where the current President George W. Bush won the election against Senator John Kerry and is now going to serve another four year term as President of the United States of America