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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SOCIAL COGNITION
HOW PEOPLE
- INTERPRET
- ANALYZE
- REMEMBER
- USE INFO ABOUT SOCIAL WORLD
SCHEMAS
helps us organize and make sense of information

ex: homeless people being rude.

- resistant to change
- stronger effect on social cognition when they are strong and cognitive load is high
- result in distortions in how the social world is understood
Perseverance EFFECT
THE TENDENCY FOR BELIEFS AND SCHEMAS TO REMAIN UNCHANGED EVEN IN THE FACE OF CONTRADICTORY INFORMATION

EX: WHEN YOU THINK ALL HOMELESS PEOPLE ARE RUDE, BUT THEN YOU MEET ONE THAT ISN'T...BUT YOU DON'T REALLY ACCEPT IT
SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY
-PREDICTIONS THAT, IN A SENSE, MAKE THEMSELVES COME TRUE
-ROSENTHAL AND JACOBSON EXPERIMENT IN 1968 WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, TEACHERS, AND IQ'S
AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC
MAKING JUDGEMENTS ON THE BASIS OF HOW EASILY SPECIFIC KINDS OF INFORMATION CAN BE BROUGHT TO MIND

EX: YOU LEARN TO DRIVE, YOU HAVE TO THINK ABOUT STOPPING AT STOP SIGNS, BUT LATER ON IT BECOMES EASIER FOR THIS INFORMATION TO BE ACCESSED AND YOU DON'T HAVE TO THINK ABOUT IT
PRIMING
ACUTENESS TO STIMULI BECAUSE OF EXPOSURE TO CERTAIN EVENT OR EXPERIENCE

EX: SOMEONE WHO JUST BOUGHT A NEW CAR WILL NOW NOTICE MORE FREQUENTLY THE OTHER PEOPLE WHO ARE DRIVING THE SAME CAR AS HER
ANCHORING AND ADJUSTMENT HEURISTICS
THE TENDENCY TO MAKE JUDGMENTS USING A NUMBER OR VALUE AS A STARTING POINT TO WHICH WE THEN MAKE ADJUSTMENTS
AUTOMATIC PROCESSING
-AFTER EXTENSIVE EXPERIENCE, INFORMATION PROCESSING BECOMES EFFORTLESS, INVOLUNTARY, UNINTENTIONAL AND NON CONSCIOUS
-INVOLVES ERRORS
- LIKE STEREOTYPES
AMYGDALA
INVOLVED IN AUTOMATIC JUDGMENTS
SIMPLE GOOD V. BAD
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
IMPLICATED IN CONTROLLED EVALUATIVE REACTIONS
NEGATIVITY BIAS
-PEOPLE SHOW GREATER SENSITIVITY TO NEGATIVE INFO. THAN TO POSITIVE INFO
-EASIER TO IDENTIFY THREATENING FACIAL EXPRESSIONS THAN POSITIVE ONES (FIGHT OR FLIGHT)
-NOT BENEFICIAL B/C WE CAN INTERPRET THINGS AS NEGATIVE WHEN THEY ARE POSITIVE
OPTIMISTIC BIAS
-PREDISPOSITION TO EXPECT THINGS TO TURN OUT WELL
-WE BELIEVE WE'RE MORE LIKELY TO EXPERIENCE GOOD OUTCOMES THAN OTHERS ARE, AND LESS LIKELY TO EXPERIENCE BAD OUTCOMES THAN OTHERS ARE
OVERCONFIDENCE BARRIER
TENDENCY TO HAVE MORE CONFIDENCE IN THE ACCURACY OF JUDGMENTS THAN IS REASONABLE
PLANNING FALLACY
TENDENCY TO MAKE OPTIMISTIC PREDICTIONS ON HOW LONG IT WILL TAKE TO COMPLETE A TASK
- EX: HW & PROCRASTINATION & PAPERS
BRACING FOR LOSS
EXCEPT TO THE OPTIMISTIC BIAS
WHEN YOU EXPECT TO EXPERIENCE SOMETHING NEG. THAT HAS IMPORTANCE CONSEQUENCES FOR YOU, YOU'LL BECOME PESSIMISTIC, ANTICIPATING A NEGATIVE OUTCOME

-TO HELP PROTECT FROM BAD NEWS
COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING
TENDENCY TO IMAGINE OTHER OUTCOMES IN A SITUATION THAN THE ONES THAT ACTUALLY OCCURRED
- "WHAT IF'S"
- THOUGHTS MAY OCCUR AUTOMATICALLY
-EXPERIENCE BOTH BENEFITS AND COSTS
-CAN BOOST OR DEPRESS MOODS
-MITIGATE THE BITTERNESS OD DISAPPOINTMENTS
THOUGHT SUPPRESSION
EFFORTS TO PREVENT CERTAIN THOUGHTS FROM ENTERING CONSCIOUSNESS BY MONITORING (SEARCHING FOR UNWANTED THOUGHTS) & OPERATING (FORCING YOURSELF TO THINK ABOUT SOMETHING ELSE)
REBOUND EFFECT
OCCURS WHEN S/O IS FATIGUED OR EXPERIENCING INFO OVERLOAD
- RESULTS WHEN ONLY THE MONITORING PROCESS IS WORKING
MAGICAL THINKING
THINKING BASED ON IRRATIONAL ASSUMPTIONS
- THINKING THAT ONE'S THOUGHTS CAN INFLUENCE THE WORLD
- THINKING THAT THINGS THAT RESEMBLE EACH OTHER SHARE BASIC PROPERTIES
MODERATING VARIABLES
FACTORS THAT MAYBE INFLUENCING AN OUTCOME
INFLUENCE OF AFFECT ON COGNITION
MOODS AFFECT HOW NEW STIMULI ARE PERCEIVED
HAPPY MOODS INCREASE CREATIVITY
- MORE SOCIABLE
INFO THAT EVOKES EMOTIONAL REACTIONS MAY BE PROCESSED DIFFERENTLY THAN OTHER KINDS OF INFO
MOOD DEPENDENT MEMORY
INFO REMEMBERED WHILE IN A GIVEN MOOD MAY BE DETERMINED BY WHAT WAS LEARNED WHEN PREVIOUSLY IN THAT MOOD
MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECTS
PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY TO STORE OR REMEMBER POSITIVE INFO WHEN IN A POS. MOOD AND NEG. INFO WHEN IN A NEG. MOOD
TWO FACTOR THEORY OF EMOTION
THE INTERPRETATION OF FEELINGS IS DETERMINED BY OUR PERCEPTIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT