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55 Cards in this Set

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O2
CO2
Concentrations of 02 and C02 in systemic arterial blood are maintained at relatively constant levels becuase ________ moves from alveolar air into the bloodstream at the same rate it is consumed by the tissues, and because ________ _______ moves into alveolar air from the blood at the same rate it is produced in the tissues.
Respiratory quotient
The ratio of the amount of CO2 produced by the body to the amount of O2 consumed.
O2
CO2
________ enters the alveoli and _____ _____ leaves the alveoli by bulk flow of air during ventilation.
Deoxygenated
___________ blood returns via systemic veins to the R. atrium of the heart.
R. ventricle
The blood enters the ______ _________, which pumps blood through pulmonary arteries to the lungs.
oxygenated
L. ventricle
The __________ blood leaves the lungs and returns to the L. atrium via pulmonary veins. Blood then moves in the _____ _________, which pumps the blood through the systemic arteries to the cells of the body.
simple diffusion
type I
endothelial cells
basement membrane
The exchange of O2 and CO2 btwn alveoli and blood occurs by _______ ________ across the respiratory membrane, which is composed of a single layer of _____ _ epithelial cells lining the alveolus, a single layer of __________ _____ lining the capillary, and the alveolar and capillary _________ _________.
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
_______ is at a higher concentration in the alveoli and diffuses INTO the blood, whereas _______ _______ is at a higher concentration in the blood and diffuses INTO the alveoli.
respiratory membrane
alveolar air
blood
The _________ ________ provides a large surface area of very thin membrane, favoring fast rates of diffusion for 02 and CO2 btwn ________ ____ and _____.
Hypernea
An increase in ventilation to meet an increase in the metabolic demands of the body.
Dyspnea
Labored or difficult breathing
Apnea
Temporary cessation of breathing
Tachypnea
Rapid, shallow breathing
Hyperventilation
A condition in which ventalation exceeds the metabolic demands of the body.
Hypoventilation
A condition in which ventilation is insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the body.
Hypoxemia
A deficiency of O2 in the blood.
Hypoxia
A deficiency of O2 in the tissues.
Hypercapnic
A excess of CO2 in the blood.
Hypocapnia
A defiency of CO2 in the blood.
Hemoglobin
a protein found in the erythrocytes that has a unique structure that binds O2 and CO2 to it.
O2
CO2
metabolic
The job of the respiratory system is to deliver ________ and remove _______ ________ from cells at a rate sufficient to keep up with __________ demands.
arterial partial pressure
To maintain _________ ________ _________, the body must regulate minute alveolar ventilation such that it neither too high nor too low.
frequency
volume
Alveolar ventilation depends on the _________ and ________ of breaths.
Inspiration
Is an active process that requires contraction of the inspiratory muscles, including the diaphram and external intercostals.
Expiration
Is passive process during quiet breathing

Contraction of the inspiratory muscles during inspiration followed by relaxation of the same muscles during __________.
expiration
During active breathing, however, _________ becomes active and requires contraction of the expiratory muscles.
contraction
relaxation
relaxation
contraction
During active breathing the respiratory cycle, _________ of the inspiratory muscle and __________ of the expiratory muscles during inspiration, followed by __________ of the inspiratory muscles and __________ of the expiratory muscles during expiration.
neural input
somatic
Because the muscles of respiration are skeletal muscles, they are stimulated to contract by ______ ______ from ________ motor neurons.
phrenic nerve
intercostal nerves
The ________ ______ innervates the diaphram, whereas the internal and external ___________ _______ innervate the intercostal muscles.
active
During ______ breathing, action potential bursts in inspiratory motor neurons occur asynchronously with bursts in expiratory motor neurons.
quiet
During _______ breathing, action potential bursts in inspiratory motor neurons.
neural signals
brainstem
The ______ _______ that control the cyclical contractions of the respiratory muscles are generated in respiratory control regions located in the __________.
medulla
pons
The respiratory controls regions are located where in the brain.
inspiratory neurons
expiratory neurons
What are the 2 general classes of neurons located in the medulla and pons?
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
dorsal respiratory group(DRG)
What are the 2 respiratory control centers located in the medulla called?
Ventral respiratory group
2 regions primarily made up of expiratory neurons
One region primarily made up inspiratory neurons.
Dorsal respiratory group
contains primarily inspiratory neurons, although there are some expiration neurons.
DRG
VRG
The ____ inspiratory neurons have more complex patterns of activity than the ____ inspiratory neurons in that their firing pattern depends on the degree of stretch of the lungs.
VRG
DRG
____ and ____ inspiratory neurons stimulate motor neurons of the phrenic and external intercostal nerves, which then cause contraction of the inspiratory muscles.
pontine respiratory group (PRG)
What is the name of the respiratory control center of the pons?
PRG
The ____ contains both inspiratory and expiratory neurons as well as MIXED NEURONS, which have activity associated with both inspiration and expiration.
PRG
The ____ may facilitate the transition btwn inspiration and expiration.
medulla
central pattern generator
In the ________, inspiratory neurons contol the motor neurons to the inspiratory muscles, and that these neurons generate action potentials during inspiration but not during expiration. This source of activity is called the _______ _______ __________.
CPG
a network of neurons that generates a regular, repeating pattern of neural activity called the respiratory rhythm.
CPG
In quiet breathing, the breathing rhythm is produced by the ____.
central chemoreceptors
peripheral chemoreceptors
The sensory input that indirectly communicates with CPG and are located in the brain and the systemic arterials are known as: (2)
pulmonary stretch receptors
irritant receptors
proprioceptors
The _________ _______ ________ are located in the smooth muscle of pulmonary airways, ________ ________in the lining of the respiratory tract, ____________ in muscles and joints, arterial baroreceptors, and nocireceptors and thermoreceptors located throughout the body.
pulmonary stretch receptors
___________ _______ receptors are excited by inflation of the lungs and do not appear to play a significant role in regulating breathing in humans.
Irritant
________ receptors are stimulated by inhaled particulates such as smoke or dust, and by certain chemicals such as sulfur dioxide.
acidosis
7.35 or lower in the arterial blood is known as __________.
alkaline
A pH that is 7.45 or greater is known as _________.
acidic
If the blood becomes too _______, then it can depress the CNS and can progress into a coma or even respiratory failure.
alkaline
When the pH becomes too ________, the Ner. sys. becomes overly excitable, which can lead to uncontrollable muscle seizures and convulsions and even death.
Respiratory acidosis
an INCREASE in the acidity of the blood due to INCREASED CO2, which occurs, for example, during hypoventilation.
Respiratory alkalosis
a DECREASED in the acidity of the blood due to DECREASED CO2, which occurs, for example, during hyperventilation.