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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the types of muscle
Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac
The _________ is the connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber (cell). (innermost)
Endomysium
The __________ encircles a group of muscle fibers, forming a ____________. (middle)
perimysium & fascile
The __________ encircles all the the fasicles to form the complete muscle. (outermost)
Epimysium
A _______ is a cordlike extesion of 3 muscle linings (Endo, peri, and epimysium). It extends beyon the muscle tissue to connect the muscle to a bone or to other muscle
Tendon
A _____________ is a flat broad extension the the 3 muscle linings and serves the same function as a tendon
Aponeurosis
Define sarcolemma
also known a plama membrane of the muscle cell, is highly invaginated by transverse tubules that permeate the cell
Stiated muscle cells are ____________. The nuclei lie along the _________ of the cell.
Mulitnucleated
periphery
Define myofibrils
A slender striated strand of muscle tissue. Myofibrils occur in groups of branching threads running parallel to the cellular long axis.
Myofibrils consist of two types of filament, name them
Myosin (thick filament)
Actin (thin filament)
Actin contains two importand molecules that covers special binding sites, name them
Troponin & Tropomyosin
Myosin has a protruding head which is instrumental is what?
It is the binding head that attaches to actin.
(forming cross bridges)
______ binds to a myosin head and forms ________
(energy)
ATP
ATP+Pi
When ATP binds to the myosin head it is converted to __________
ADP and Pi
__________ exposes the binding sties on the actin filaments.
Ca2+
Ca2+ binds to the _________ molecule causing ____________ to expose positions on the actin filament for the attachment of myosin heads.
Troponin
Tropomyosin
__________ ________ between the myosin heads and actin filaments form.
Cross bridges
When the attachment sites on the ______ are exposed, the ___________ heads bind to the ______to form crossbridges
Actin
myosin
actin
________ and _____ are released and sliding motion of actin results.
ADP
Pi
______ causes the cross bridge to unbind
ATP
Without the addition of new ATP molecule, the cross bridge remain attached to the actin filaments. This is the cause of what?
Rigor Mortis
_________ or _________ separates the neuron from a muscle cell or another neuron
Synapse or synaptic cleft
Action potential generates the release of ______________
acetycholine
When an action potential of a neuron reaches the ______________ __________, the neuron sceretes the neurotransmitter________, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft
neuromuscular junctiion
acetycholine (Ach)
Action potential is generated on the _________ ____ ______ and throughout the __ ______.
Motor end plate
T tubules.
___________ on the motor end plate, a highly folded region of the sarcolemma, intiate and _________ _________.
Receptors
action potential
The actiion potential travels along the sarcolemma througout the ________ ________ of __________
transverse
system
tubules (T tubuels)
The _________ ____________ release _____. As a result of the AP troughout the T tubules
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Ca2+
The _______ released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to ________ molecules on the actin helix prompting _______ molecules to expose ________ sites for ______ crossbridge formation.
Ca2+
Tropon
Tropomyosin
bindings
mysoin
If __________ is available muscle contraction begins
ATP
Name the phases of muscle contraction
Latent
Contraction
Relaxation
Refractory
The latent period is the time for the release of_____.
Ca2+
The contraction period represents the time during actual _________ ____________
muscle contraction
The relaxation period is the time during which ___ is returned to the _________ ________ bye active transport.
Ca2+
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
The refactory period is the time immediatley following a stimulus during which the muscle fiber will ________ ___________ to a second stimulus.
not responds
A _______ ________ is the time required for the release of Ca+
Latent Period
The _________ ________ represents the time during actual muscle contraction
Contraction Period
The ________ _________ is the time during which Ca+ is returned to the __________ __________ by ___________ _________.
Relaxation Period
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Active Transport
The _________ __________ is the time immediately following a stimulus during which time the muscle fiber will not respond to a second stimulus.
Refractory Period
Name the factors that contribute to the strength and maximum duration of a muscle contraction
1. Frequency of stimuli
2. Strength of stimulus
3. Length of muscle fiber contraction
4. Type of muscle & fiber type
5. Muscle tone & fatigue
For muscle to contract ATP must be available name the source of ATP
1. ATP from within the cell
2. ATP from creatine Phosphate
3. ATP from glucose within cell
4. ATP obtained from glucose and fatty acids obtained from blood.
__________ __________ is the process by which ATP is obtained from energy-rich molecules/
Cellular respiration
In _________, glucose is broken down to _______ acid, and two ATP molecules are generated
Glycolysis
Pyruvic
Glycolysis is called and _________ process, because no ___ is used during the metabolic process.
Anaerobic
O2
In Anarerobic respiration, pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) is converted to _________ ________.
Lactic Acid
In anaerobic respiration ________ _________ accumulates and leads to muscle fatigue.
lactic acid
Fast-twitch fibers contract rapidly, fatigue rapidly, and are highly vascularized. TRUE or FALSE?
FALSE
In muscle contractions, the length of the muscle always shortens. TRUE or FALSE?
FALSE
Isometric contractin
The _______ ________ is the time immediately following a stimulus where the muscle will not respond to a second stimulus.
refractory period