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20 Cards in this Set

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What is Cognition?
Refers to mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
Explain Thinking.
The manipulation of mental information in order to make conclusions. Mostly mental images and concepts.
Explain Mental Images.
Mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present.
Explain Concepts.
Mental categories of objects based on properties they share.
What are the 3 ways of forming concepts?
1-Formal
2-Natural
3-Prototype
Explain Formal Concepts.
Features that define a concept. Like a formal name
Explain Natural Concepts.
Results of everyday experiences. Like the names we usually call something. What we would teach a child.
Explain Prototypes.
Narrowed down specifically. Like what type.
Define Problem Solving.
Thinking and behavior directed toward a goal that is not readily available.
What are the six problem sovling ways.
1-Trial and Error
2-Algorithms
3-Insight
4-Inutition
5-Functional Fixedness
6-Mental Set
Explain Trial and Error.
Attempting different solutuons and eliminating the ones that do not work. Good for some things but not all.

ex. trying on dresses to find the right one
Explain Algorithms.
Step by step processes that usually produce the correct solution.

ex. math
Explain the Heuristic Method.
General rule of thumb which reduces the number of possible solutions.
Explain Insight.
-AHA
-Sudden realization of how a problem can be solved.
Explain Intuition.
Come to a conclusion without conscious awareness of the process involved.
Explain Functional Fixedness.
Tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual way.
Explain Mental Set.
Tendency to presist in solving problems with soultions that have worked in the past.
Explain the Single Feature Model.
Making a decision based on a single feature.

Appropriate when the descion is a minor one.
Explain the Additive Model.
Make a list of factors that are important to you and add up the rating for each alernative.

Appropriate for complex descions and identifying.
Explain Elimination by apescts model.
Evaluate all the alernatives one at a time and eliminate all that don't meet.

Appropriate when the desicon is complex and you need to narrow down a range of choices.