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31 Cards in this Set

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the mental manipulation of information. Our mental representations simplify and summarize information from the environment.
Thinking
a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities that share certain properties.

ex. golden retriever are instances of the concept dog
Concept
instances of a concept that are more representative that others.

ex. most representative of sports? football or weightlifting
Prototype
a unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and express a unitary idea.

ex. border collies are smart.
Proposition
an integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world.

ex. gender schema, what it means to be a male or female
Cognitive schema
a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities.
Mental Image
mental processes occuring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary.

ex. routines performed without thinking - typing, driving a car
Subconscious processes
mental processes occuring outside of and not available to conscious awareness.

ex. relying on intuition rather than conscious reasoning to make decisions
nonconscious processes
learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you have learned.

ex. best strategy for winning a card game without being able to consciously identify what they are doing.
implicit learning
the drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, or assumptions
reasoning
a problem-solving strategy guaranteed to produce a solution even if the user does not know how it works.

ex. make a cake, apply a recipe
algorithm
a form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from certain premises; if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true

ex. 'all human beings are mortal' & 'i am a human being' are true, conclusion 'i am mortal' is true
deductive reasoning
a form of reasoning in which the premises provide support for a conclusion, but it is still possible for the conclusion to be false

ex. good food at restaurant M, also on T, also on W. leads me to conclude that they serve consistently good food, but the regular chef could have been out of town & a visiting chef was preparing the meals
inductive reasoning
a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem solving but does not guarantee an optimal solution

ex. a student trying to decide whether to take a particular course (ask friends how they liked the instructor)
heuristic
a process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or to resolving differences

ex. juries are suppossed to do this to arrive at a verdict
dialectical reasoning
the tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances

ex. catastrophes and shocking accidents
availability heuristic
a tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems

ex. people with arthritis think that their symptoms follow a pattern dictated by the weather (really it doesn't)
mental set
the tendency to overestimate one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known; the "I knew it all along" phenomenon"

ex. the generals should have known that the enemy would attempt a surprise attack
hindsight bias
the tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms onne's one belief
confirmation bias
a state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior.

ex. smokers' behavior is dissonant with their awareness that smoking causes illness
cognitive dissonance
in the theory of cognitive dissonance, tension that occurs when you believe you may have made a bad decision
postdecision dissonance
the tendency of individuals to increase their liking for something that they have worked hard or suffered to attain; a common form of dissonance reduction
justification of effort
an inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment
intelligence
a statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait, ability, or aptitude (factor)
factor analysis
a general ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents
g factor
the measurement of mental development expressed in terms of the average mental ability at a given age

ex. SATs, IQ tests
psychometric
a mesure of mental development expressed in terms of the average mental ability at a given age
mental age
a measure of intelligence now derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests
intelligence quotient
a burden of doubt a person feels about his or her performance, d ue to negative stereotypes about his or her group's abilities

ex. test performance of minorities and women
stereotype threat
the ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others
emotional intelligence
a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group

ex. twin and adoption studies
heritability