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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
learning
an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior
behaviorism
a basic kind of learning that involves associations between enviornmental stimuli and the organism's responses.
conditioning
the classical-conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning

ex. an event/thing that elicts a response automatically/reflexively i.e., dogfood
unconditioned stimulus
the classical conditioning term for a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning.

ex. the response is automatically produced i.e., salivate
unconditioned response
the classical conditionng term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.

ex. sight of food dish
conditioned stimulus
the classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus

i.e., sight of food dish = salivate
conditioned response
the process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response
classical conditioning
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

i.e. if the dog keeps seeing the empty bowl and it does not follow with food, he will stop salivating.
extinction
the reapparance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
spontaneous recovery
in classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus

i.e. the dog sees repeated pairings of the light and the dish in order to salivate
higher-order conditioning
after conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR.

ex. middle c, but instead play middle d..still salivates
stimulus generalization
the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR

ex. middle c on piano (w/ food), then middle c on guitar (w/out following it with food)..salivate to piano
stimulus discrimination
in classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.

ex. afraid of rabbits - gave child milk/crackers each day w/ rabbit sitting closer. eventually wasn't afraid
counterconditioning
the process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.

ex. little girl's sobbing produces effects on the environment
operant conditioning
the process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows

ex. dog begging, give it steak, begging increases
reinforcement
the process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows

ex. dog begs, say no, begging decreases
punishment
a stimulus that is inherently reingoring, typically satisfying a psychological need; an example is food.
primary reinforcer
a stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock
primary punisher
a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers

ex.money, praise
secondary reinforcer
a stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers

ex. criticism, scolding
secondary punisher
a reinforcement procedurein which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.

ex. behavior:studying, + reinforcer: good grade, result: studying +'s
positive reinforcement
a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur

ex. behavior:studying, - reinforcer: nagging ceases, result: good grade
negative reinforcement
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer
extinction
in operant conditioning, the tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of other, similar stimuli
stimulus generalization
in operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension
stimulus discrimination
the application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate problematic behavior
behavior modification
reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as money, prizes, and praise
extrinsic reinforcers
reinforcers that are inherently related to teh activity being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and the satisfaction of accomplishment
intrinsic reinforcers
theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs
social cognitive theories
a process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience
observational learning