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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- every living organism is made up of one or more cells
- the smallest living organisms are single cells, and cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms
- all cells arise from preexisting cells
The Cell Theory
famous for making his microscope and observing tiny things that had never been seen before
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
used a cork to observe cells; first to use the term cell
Robert Hooke
found the nucleus in 1833
Robert Brown
first to view a living cell and found protoplasm in 1835
Felix Dujardin
stated that living things are made of cells; helped the rise of the cell theory
Mattias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
come to the conclusion that cells come from preexisting cells; helped the rise of the cell theory
Rudolf Virchow
deoxyribonucleic acid
cells that do not have a nucleus; "before the nucleus"
cells that do have a nucleus; "true nucleus"
region of a prokaryotic cell where chromosome is usually coiled and localized; is not separated from the rest of the cytoplasm by a membrane
small rings of DNA located outside the nucleiod; found in prokaryotic cells; usually carry genes that give the cell special properties, like allowing them to acivate antibiotics
ribonucleic acid
membrane-enclosed structures that perform specific functions within the cell
a network of protein fibers, gives shape and organization to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
an organelle, usually the largest in the cell, that consists of three readily distinguishable parts; found only in eukaryotic cells and contains the DNA
separates the nuclear material from the cytoplasm
nuclear envelope
a granular-looking material within the nucleus that consists of DNA and proteins; turns into chromosomes when the cell is multiplying, and reverts back when it is finished
long strands of DNA and protein from the chromatin
a small particle composed of RNA and proteins that serve as a kind of workbench for the synthesis of proteins; can be used to synthesize any of the thousands of proteins made by a cell
a series of interconnected membrane-enclosed tubes and channels in the cytoplasm; has two forms: rough and smooth
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
part of the ER that synthesizes lipids, including the phospholipids and cholesterol used in membrane formation; contains enzymes that detoxify harmful drugs and metabolic by-products; does not have ribosomes
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
synthesizes both proteins and phospholipids, and can produce new membrane incorporated into the ER; contains ribosomes which manufacture the proteins, such as digestive enzymes and protein hormones
rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
a small membrane bound sac from within the cytoplasm
a specialized set of membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum that looks very much like a stack of flattened sacs
Golgi complex
- separates proteins and lipids received from the ER according to their destinations; for example, it separates digestive enzyes that are bound fro lysosomes from hormones that the cell will secrete
- modifies some molecules; for instance, it adds sugars to proteins to make glycoprotiens
- packages these materials into vesicles that are then transported to other parts of the cell or to the plasma membrane for export
Three major functions of the Golgi complex
membrane-bound structures formed by the Golgi apparatus; contain enzymes for digestion and ridding the cell of foreign/unhealthy bacteria; also known as the "suicide sacs"
formed in phagocytosis; engulfs extracellular particles with extensions of the plasma membrane; food particles are then moved into the cytoplasm and enclosed within membranous sacs
food vacuoles
vacuoles composed of collecting ducts, a central reservoir, and a tube leading to a pore in the plasma membrane
contractile vacuoles
fluid-filled sacs surrounded by a single membrane
large vacuole that takes up most of the space in a plant cell; filled mostly with water it is involved in the cell's water balance; also provides a dump sitefor hazardous wastes, which plant cells often cannot excrete
central vacuole
plant cell organelles that convert energy stored in sugar to ATP
plant celle organelle that captures energy directly from sunlight and stores it in sugar molecules
the hypothesis that certain organelles, especially the chloroplasts and mitochondria, arose as mutually beneficial associations between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and captured bacteria that lived within the cytoplasm of the prokaryotic cells
endosymbiont hypothesis
a metabolism that does not use oxygen during its breakdown of food molecules
a metabolism that does use oxygen during its breakdown of food molecules
the green pigment molecule which gives plants their green color
organelles found only in plants and photosynthetic protists; surrounded by a double membrane and are usually used for the storage of various molecules
thin filament of the cytoskeleton; function is cell movement and support, and is used in cytoplasmic movements in muscle cells when they contract
the medium-sized protein fibers of the cytoskeleton
intermediate filaments
the thickest protein fibers of the cytoskeleton; small cylinders composed of tubulin, forms the centriole and the spindle apparatus during cell division; also forms the cilia and the flagella
- cell shape
- cell movement
- organelle movement
- cell division
Functions of the cytoskeleton
bundles of microtubules in a 9+2 pattern; provide movement for single-celled organisms
cilia and flagella
bundles of microtubles in a 9+0 pattern; important in cell division; found in animal cells
structure in the cell cytoplasm that is located at the base of a cilium or flagellum and helps to organize microtubules
basal body