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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the capacity to do work, including synthesizing molecules, moving objects, and generating heat and light
energy of movement, includes light (movement of photons), heat (movement of molecules), electricity (movement of electrically charged particles), and movement of large objects
kinetic energy
stored energy, includes chemical energy stored in the bonds that hold atoms together in molecules, electrical energy stored in a battery, and positional energy stored in a diver poised to spring
potential energy
define the basic properties and behavior of energy
the laws of thermodynamics
states that, assuming there is no influx of energy, the total amount of energy within a given system remains constant
the first law of thermodynamics
states that when energy is converted from one form to another, the amount of useful energy decreases
the second law of thermodynamics
tendency toward loss of orderliness and high-level energy and an increase in randomness, disorder, and low-level energy
a process that forms or breaks the chemical bonds that hold atoms together
chemical reaction
reaction occurs if the reactants contain more energy than the products
reaction occurs if the products contain more energy than the reactants
the initial input or "push" to start a chemical reaction
activation energy
an exergonic reaction provides the energy needed to drive an endergonic reaction
coupled reaction
provides the muscle protein with energy to contract;pick up an energy charge at an exergonic reaction, move to another location within the cell, and release the energy to drive an endergonic reaction
energy-carrier molecule
ATP, the most common energy-carrier molecule in cells
adenosine triphosphate
adenosine diphosphate
pick up electrons generated by exergonic reactions and hold them in high-energy outer electron shells; The electron is then deposited, energy and all, with another molecule to drive an endergonic reaction, typically the synthesis of ATP
electron carriers