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8 Cards in this Set

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State whether the lumen of the small intestine is technically inside or outside of the body.
The lumen is technically outside the body b/c it has not crossed the lining of the digestive tract.
Describe why the many folds, the villi, & microvilli are important & be familiar w/ how specific nutrients are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium & across the capillary or lacteal wall.
The folds,villi,& microvilli are important b/c they greatly increase the rate of nutrient absorption. Nutrients are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium & then across the unicellular epithelium of the capillaries or lacteals. In some cases, transport of nutrients across the epithelial cells is passive.
Explain where in the digestive tract that most absorption of digested material occurs & where most reabsorption of water occurs.
Most of the absorption of digested material occurs in the small intestine.Most reabsorption of water occurs in the colon.
Explain what the main source of vitamin k is for humans.
Green vegetables & tea.
Fat-soluable vitamins
Give examples of vertebrates with the following digestive adaptations & explain how these adaptations are related to diet: variation in dentition,in the length of the digestive tract, & fermentation chambers.
1)Variation in dentition-Herbivores,carnivores,& omnivores.This adaptation is related to diet b/c teeth are for processing different kinds of food.
2)Length of the digestion tract-Herbivores & omnivores have longer alimentary canals relative to their body size than carnivores.Vegetation is more difficult to digest than meat b/c it contains cell walls.A longer tract gives more time for digestion & more SA for absorption of nutrients.
3)Fermentation Chambers-Rabbits & rodents eat animals' feces that carry nourishing by-products of fermentation.They recover these nutrients by passing the food throught the alimentary canal a second time.
Define BMR, explain how it is measured, & explain the relationship b/w BMR & body size.
BMR-the metabolic rate of a resting,fasting,& nonstressed endotherm.To measure BMR, one breathes through an apparatus that measures how much oxygen their body uses in a given time period, and that number is converted to calories burned.The relationship b/w metabolic rate & size is still unclear.
Explain the effect of undernourishment or starvation and distinguish b/w malnourished and undernourished.
The effects of undernouishment is that the stores of glycogen & fat are used up, the body begins breaking down its own proteins for fuel, muscles begin to decrease in size & the brain can become protein-deficient.
Undernourished is if the diet of a human or other animal is chronically deficient in calories.
Malnourished is an animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients.
List the 4 classes of essential nutrients, describe the dietary sources of these nutrients, and be familiar w/ their major body functions and effects of deficiency for these nutrients.
1)essential amino acids(meat,cheese,eggs)Makes proteins & the effects of deficiency are being retarded in physical & mental development.
2)essential fatty acids(animals make their own except for linoleic acid)deficiency is rare.
3)vitamins(water-soluble & fat-soluble)Function in key metabolic processes & production of connective tissue.Vitamin deficiency is severe.
4)minerals(humans & other veterbrates require large amounts of calcium & phosphorus for the construction & maintance of bone & normal function of nerves & muscles)Excess minerals can upset the homeo static balance & cause toxic side effects.