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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Potential Energy
the capacity to do work
Kinetic Energy
the energy of motion
Chemical Energy
potential energy of molecules
First Law of Thermodynamics
the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant
a measure of the degree of a system's disorder
Second Law of Thermodynamic
A state of maximum entropy
(i.e., the pyramids, once highly organized, presently crubling, and many thousands of years from now, dust.)
(adenosine triphosphate)Main coupling agent of cells
On their own, energy in cells do what?
Energy in the cells spontaneously run in the direction that results in a decrease in usable energy
ATP Couples what?
ATP, an energy carrier in all living cells, couples energy-releasing reactions with energy-requiring ones.
How does ATP actually "couple"?
It does so by phosphate-group transfers, which release enough usable energy to activate molecules - to prime them to react.
What happens in Aerobic Respiration?
Transfers of electrons and hydrogen from glucose drive ATP formation.
What happens in Photosynthesis?
similar transfers (such as the transfers of electrons and hydrogen in Aerobic Respiration) drive ATP formation, then the electrons and hydrogen combine with carbon and oxygen to form glucose.
the net movement of like molecules or ions down a concentration gradient
catalytic molecules which speed up the rate at which reactions approach equilibrium
Passive Transport
an unassisted flow of solutes through the interior of a transport protein, down the concentration gradients.
Active Transport
energy driven mechanisms called "membrane pumps" make solutes cross cell memberanes against concentration gradients so that their net movement is in the direction where they are more concentrated.
when a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and its contents are released outside
the cell secures items at its outer surface; an indentation formas at the plasma membrane, balloons inward, and pinches off. The resulting endocytic vesicle transports or stores its contents in the cytoplasm.
an active form of endocytosis where cells are eaten.
diffusion of water molecules in response to a water concentration gradient between two regions separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
Sandstorm Facts
Average duration: 1 day

Heat supplies energy needed to fuel sandstorm

Cools off at night and sandstorm typically disapates
Tsunami Facts
Tsu means harbor; nami means waves

Caused by earthquakes, waves travel outwards, rapid change in water levels, no way to prevent, working on a buoy warning system
Tornado Facts
Look for cumulous clouds, thunderstorms, typically a mile wide a top

Tornado Season: April thru July

Tornado Alley: Midwest

Signs of Tornado: greenish/black sky, hail, quiet, rotating clouds, flying debris, sounds like trains/jets
Cells have what kind of environment?
Cells have a constantly changing environment
What do actions of cells determine?
Actions of cells determines what organ does
How many cells in human body?
65 Trillion cells in human body
Are cells for frog/human/bird similar?
Skin cells for frog/bird/human look alike.
funtional part of cells
Muscles need more what for energy?
Muscles need more mitochondria for energy.
ability to grow plants without soil
What is withing the plasma memberane?
Lipids, carbohydrates and proteins are within the plasma membrane.
The scattering of incident light by reflection from a rough surface; The transmission of light through a translucent material; The spontaneous intermingling of the particles of two or more substances as a result of random thermal motion.
A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.