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41 Cards in this Set

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Heterotrophs
Obtain the chemical energy and carbon compounds they need from other organisms.
Primary Producers
An autotroph; a species that creates its own food trhough photosynthesis or from reduced inorganic compounds and that is a source of food for other species in its ecosystem.
Consumers
Organism that consumes food created by other organisms
Animals
A major lineage of eukaryotes. Typically have a complex, large, multicellular body, eat othe arganisms, and are mobile. Are a monophyletic group.
Body Plan
The basic architecture of an animal's body, including the number and arrangement of limbs, body segments, and major tissues. Early development is also studied.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that function as a unit, such as muscle tissue.
Parazoans
Literally "beside-animals"

Animals whose cells are not organized into distinct tissues (sponges)
Eumetazoans
Literally "truly-among-animals"

Animals whose cells are organized into distinct tissues. (all except sponges)
Diploblasts
Animals with 2 tissue layers in embryo: ectoderm + endoderm
Germ Layers
In animals, one of the 3 basic types of tissues of early embryonic development that give rise to all other tissues: endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm.
Asymmetrical
Having no planes of symmetry
Radial Symmetry
An animal body pattern in which there are at least 2 planes of symmetry. Typically, the body is cylindrical or disk shaped w/parts radiating from central hub.
Cephalization
Evolution of a head, or anterior region, where structures for feeding, sensing the environment, and processing info are concentrated
Coelom
An internal, usually fluid-filled, body cavity that forms within the mesoderm.
Acoelomates
Animals without body cavity (coelom)
Coelomates
Animals with body cavity (coelom)
Pseudocoelom
Literally "false-hollow"
The enclosed body cavity forms between the endoderm and mesoderm layers in embryo.
Hydrostatic Skeleton
A system of body support involving fluid-filled compartments that can change in shape but cannot easily be compressed.
Bilateria
Group of orgs that are bilaterally symmetric animals with three embryonic tissue layers
Protostomes
A monophyletic group ofanimals that has a coelom, is bilaterally symmetric, shares a pattern of embryological development, including spiral cleavage, formation of the mouth earlier than the anus, and formation of the coelom by splitting of a block of mesoderm. Includes arthropods, mollusks, and annelids.
Deuterostomes
A major lineage of animals that share a pattern of embryological development, including radial cleavage, formation of the anus earlier than the mouth, and formation of the coelom by pinching off of layers of mesoderm from the gut. Includes echinoderms and chordates.
Cleavage
a rapid series of mitotic divisions that occurs in the absence of growth. Divides the egg cytoplasm. Often results in a hollow ball of cells.
Gastrulation
A series of cell movements that results in the formation of tissue layers
Sessile
Permanently attatched to substrate; not capable of moving to another location
Segmentation
A body plan involving division of the body into many similar segments that bear similar structures as other, nearby segments
Vertibrates
Phylum defined by presence of a skull
Invertibrates
Paraphyletic group defined as animals that are not invertibrates
Metamorphosis
Literally "between-forms"

A change in form during development.
Filter Feeding
Capturing food by filtering out particles suspended in air or water
Foot
A muscular appendage of mollusks, used for movement and/or burrowing into sediment
Siphons
A tube-like appendage of many mollusks. Often used for feeding or propulsion.
Gill
Any organ in aquatic animals that exchanges gases and other dissolved substances between the bood and the surrounding water. Typically, a filamentous outgrowth of a body surface.
Deposite Eater
An organism that eats its way through substrate
Herbivory
Form of feeding that involves harvesting algae or plant tissue
Viviparous
Literally "live-bearing"
Give birth to live young
Oviparous
Literally "egg-bearing"
Species that deposite fertilized eggs.
Ovoviparous
Literally "egg-live-bearing"
Female retains eggs inside body during early development, but embryoes are nourished by yolk inside egg not nutrients transferred directly from mother.
Pupa
Metamorphosing insect that is enclosed in a protective case.
Pupation
A developmental stage of many insects, in which the body metamorphoses from the larval form to the adult form while enclosed in a protective case.
Holometabolous Metamorphosis
Literally "whole-change"

A type of metamorphosis in which animal completely changes form.
Hemimetabolous Metamorphosis
Literally "half-change"

Metamorphosis in which animal increases in size from one stage to the next but does not dramatically change body form.