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21 Cards in this Set

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macroevolution
evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction
speciation
origin of new species in evolution
species
group whose members possess similar anatomical chracteristics and have the ability to interbreed
bioloical species concept
the definition of a species as a pop or group of pops whose members have the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring; also called sexual species
prezygotic barriers
a reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization of ova if interspecific mating is attempted
postzygotic barriers
any of several species isolating mechanisims that prevent hybrids produced by 2 different species from devloping into viable, fertile adults
ecological species concept
the idea that ecological roles (niches) definie species
pluralistic species concept
the idea that there is no universal explanation for the cohesion of indivs that make up species
morphological species concept
the idea that species are defined by measurable anatomical criteria
genealogical species concept
a species is a set of rogs with a unique genetic history
sympatric speciation
a mode of speciation occuring as a result of a radiacal change in the genome of a subpop, reproductively isolating the subpop from the parent pop
adaptive radiation
the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems
autopolyploid
a type of polyploid speices resulting from 1 speices doublning its chromosome number to become tetraploid which may self fertilize or mate with other tetraploids
allopolyploid
a common type of polyploid species resulting from 2 different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes
punctuated equilibrium
a theory of evolution advocating spurts of relatively rapid change followed by long periods of stasis
exaptation
a structure that evolves and functions in 1 enviromental context but that can perform additional functions when placed in some new environment
allometric growth
the variation in relative rates of growth of various parts of the body, which helps shape the org
heterochrony
evolutionary change in the timing or rate of devlopment
paedogenesis
the precocious development of sexual maturity in a larva
homeotic
any of the gnes that control the overall body plan of animals by controling the developmental fate of groups of cells
species selection
theory maintiaining that species living the longest and generating the greatest number of species determine the direction of major evolutionary trends