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34 Cards in this Set

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Ottoman Empire
An empire led by the Ottoman Turks. This once great empire allowed people to worship as they pleased, never forcing citizens to become Muslims. It spanned over the southwest and north coasts of the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Europe, and Northern Africa. During World War One, the Empire died
A mandate is a land that is to be governed by an outside power on behalf of the League of Nations until it is reedy for independence. At the end of World War one, Britain and France split the fallen Ottoman Empire into mandates. France took Syria and the future location of Lebanon. Britain took Palestine, Trans-Jordan, and Iraq as their mandates
A Zionist was a Jew immigrated out of their homeland in Jerusalem. They called themselves this after the hill in their homeland that they prayed to return to
Self-determination is a country's right to decide their own political future
West Bank
The West Bank is a disputed territory in south west Asia, between Israel and Jordan, near the Jordan River. It was part of Jordan after 1949, but was occupied by Israel during the Arab-Israeli war in 1967. The PLO and Israel signed an accord in 1994 that gave Palestinians self-rule, and required the Israeli soldiers to withdraw a certain amount from the West Bank
Gaza Strip
The Gaza Strip is a region on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt and Israel. It is disputed due to the fact Israelis occupy it, but it is under interim rule by the Palestinians
An Arab is any person who speaks Arabic. Many Arabs are Islamic, but some are even Christian and Jewish
Intifada was an uprising among Palestinian Arabs in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. It was a protest against the Israelis inhabiting those regions
PLO stands for Palestine Liberation Organization. This is the Palestinian government in exile
A Jew is a believer in the Jewish faith. This ethnic group makes up 80% of the population of Israel
David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion was the first elected prime minister and defense minister of Israel. He was the leader that brought attention to the rising amount of desert
Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon is the eleventh Prime Minister of Israel, and has held this office since March of 2001
Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat is currently the elected leader of the Palestinian Council that governs the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. In the past, he was leader of the PLO, and considered a ruthless terrorist
Balfour Declaration
The Balfour Declaration was a decree made by the British in 1917. It stated their support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Drip irrigation
Drip irrigation is a process that reserves water in the dry region of Israel. It lets precise amounts of water drip onto plants to conserve precious water there
Potash is a mineral that is mined form the Dead Sea in Israel along with table salt and bromine. Potash can is used in fertilizer and explosives and is shipped out worldwide. The potash and phosphate industry is one of Israel’s biggest exporting companies
Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent is an area of land that spanned through modern Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq. In this fertile land, the first civilizations developed along with the first farmers
A militia is a citizen army. In the 1980’s, the Christian and Muslim groups split into factions in Lebanon. Each of these factions formed their own militias. These militias broke out into fights in places such as busy streets. This was a result of anarchy in Lebanon
If a country is in a state of anarchy, then it is lawless. Lebanon was in a state of anarchy in the mid-1980s, because the army, police, and government were incapable of controlling anything or keeping order
An embargo is a sever restriction of trade with other countries. During the Persian Gulf War of 1990, the UN put an embargo on Iraq
The infrastructure of a country is the basic facilities such as roads, schools, and hospitals
falaj system
The falaj system is the ancient irrigation system in the Arabian Peninsula consisting of under and above ground canals
Gulf States
The Gulf States are also called the Persian Gulf States. These are the oil-producing countries bordering on or located near the Persian Gulf
Mecca is the the holy city of Islam. This is where Mohammed was born. This city is where Muslims make a pilgrimage to in accordance with the Five Pillars
the kaaba is the cube shaped holy shrine in Mecca. Inside this shrine is a small stone believed to be sent by Allah. During the hajj, Muslims circle the Kaaba seven times reciting prayers
The hajj is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It states that a Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life if they are financially and physically able. The tradition of the hajj is performed between the 7th and 12th days of the last month of the Islamic year
Mohammed was the founder of the Muslim faith. He was a prophet who was spoken to by the angel Gabriel. He was spoken God’s word and began telling people the message he received
Secular means worldly, or not related to religion. This is the opposite of a theocratic government
A shah is the title of the former leader of Iran. In 1925, four years after coming into power in Iran, Reza Khan declared himself Iran’s shah. He made Iran’s infrastructure stronger by building up cities and roads. He also gave women more freedoms.
An Ayatollah is a religious leader among Shiite Muslims. Ayatollah Khomeini took control over Iran after the revolt that overthrew the government in 1979. He instilled the Islamic rules and laws that once dictated life in Iran before its Westernization
OPEC stands for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. This group was formed in 1961 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
A theocratic government is one in which there is religious influences. This is the opposite of a secular government
A chador is robe that covers most of the face and body of Arab women. Usually these robes are black. This is strictly observed tradition of the Muslim religion
Palestinian/Israeli crisis (conflict)
The ongoing conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians has killed many people. Most of this conflict is based on religion, or the occupation of three religion’s homeland