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11 Cards in this Set

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national identity
a people’s sense of what makes them a nation. By following French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s advice, they kept their NATIONAL IDENTITY, and a hope for eventual independence--even though many other nations overtook it.
ghetto
a section of a city in which a particular minority group is forced to live. After the Nazi soldiers invaded Poland in 1939, they sealed most of the country’s 3 million Jews off in GHETTOS.
Holocaust
the execution of 6 million Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. In order to terminate the whole Jewish population, Nazi soldiers built six concentration camps where Jews were exiled to. In these camps they were forced to shave their heads, wear old, dirty uniforms, and work hard without very much food. Others were sent into gas chambers to be poisoned to death. Not very many survived the HOLOCAUST.
Lech Walesa
founder of the Polish labor union Solidarity. This labor union was important because it pressed for economic and political reform, and was outlawed but still lived on. LECH WALESA was a very influential man in the reform of Polish politics.
velvet revolution
a revolution without bloodshed, which took place in Czechoslovakia during the late 1980’s. During the decline of the Soviet Union’s power there during the 1980’s, a VELVET REVOLUTION took place, which resulted in the election of President Vaclav Havel.
privatization
the process of selling government–owned industries and businesses to private owners who can run them more efficiently. The process of PRIVATIZING the Czech Republic began in the 1990’s and still continues to this day.
collective farm
a government-owned farm managed by workers who share the profits from their produce. COLLECTIVE FARMS were set up in Slovakia when the Communists banned private ownership of farms. A new, major task that this region faces is returning collective farms to private ownership.
Balkanize
to break up into small, mutually hostile political units, as occurred in the Balkans after World War I. The term BALKANIZE entered the English language because the region of the Balkan Peninsula was very hostile after the war. They broke it into parts in order to avoid much more fighting.
multiplier effect
the effect an investment has in multiplying related jobs throughout the economy. For each job that soft drink companies have created, eleven other jobs were created as well, displaying the MULTIPLIER EFFECT. Jobs created include plastic makers for the bottles, and printers for the labels.
Solidarity
Solidarity is the Polish trade union set up by Lech Walesa. It gained popularity with much of the anti-Communist, Roman Catholic Poland. At the time that Solidarity was formed, very strong anti-communist feelings were rippling through Poland. The trade union only reinforced these feelings, eventually leading to the Soviet Union pulling out of Poland.
annex
to formally incorporate a country or state into another governing state, usually against the governed's will. The former Soviet Union annexed The Baltic States in 1939.