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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
population genetics
study of genetic changes in pops; science of miscorevolutionary changes in pops
modern synthesis
a comprehensive theory of evolution emphasizing natural selection, gradualism and pops as the fundamental units of evol change; neo Darwinism
population
a group of indivs of 1 species that live in a particular geographic area
species
a group whose members posses similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
gene pool
the total aggregate of genes in a pop at any 1 time
hardy weinber theorem
an axiom maintaining that the sexual shuffling of genes alone cannot alter overall genetic makeup of a pop
Hardy weinberg equilibrium
the condition describing a nonevolving pop (one at genetic equilibrium)
Hardy Weinberg equation
a formula for calculating the frequencies of genotypes in a gene pool from the frequencies of alleles and vice versa
microevolution
a change in the gene pool of a popl from generation to generation
genetic drift
changes in the gene pool of a small pop due to chance
bottleneck efefct
genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a pop typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving pop is no longer genetically representative of the original pop
founder efefct
genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of indivs from a parent pop
genetic flow
loss or gain of alleles in pop due to migration of fertile indivs or gametes between pops
mutation
rare change in DNA of a gene ultimately creating genetic diversity
gene diversity
average percent of these loci are heterozygous
nucleotide diversity
measured by comparing nucleotide sequence of DNA samples from 2 indiv and then pooling data from many such comparisons of 2 indivs
geographic variation
differences in genetic structure between pops
cline
graded variation in some traits of indivs that parallels a gradient in the enviro
balanced polymorphism
the ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a pop
heterozygote advantage
greater reproductive success of heterozygous indivs compared to homozygous; tends to perserve variation in gene pools
frequency dependent selection
a decline in the reproductive success of a morph resulting from the morph's phenotype becoming too coommon in a pop; cause of balanced polymorphism in pops
neutral variation
genetic diversity that confers no apparent selective advantage
darwinian fitness
the contribution an indiv makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to contributions of other indivs
relative fitness
the contribution of 1 genotype to the next gen compared to that of alternative genotypes for the same locus
directiional selection
natural selection that favors indivs at 1 end of the phenotypic range
diversifying selection
natural selection that favors extreme over intermediate phenotypes
stabilizing selection
natural selection that favors intermeidate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
sexual dimorphism
special case of polmorphism based on distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females
intrasexual selection
direct competition among indivs of 1 sex usually male for mates of opposite sex
intersexual selection
indivs of 1 sex usualy females are choosy in selecting thier mates from indivs of the other sex; mate choice