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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who assissinated President McKinley?
Leon Czolgosz
Who replaced McKinley?
Theodore Roosevelt
Who was the president of Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company?
George Baer
How did Roosevelt handle the coal strike situation?
He symphasized with the coal miner employees so he used his power as president to threaten the coal company to meet the coal union members or else he would send in armed forces
What was the Northern Securities Company
a holding company that controlled the stock of other companies of major railroad owners
What act did the Northern Securities company break?
Anti Sherman Act
What did the Supreme Court rule about the Northern Securities case?
that it violated the Anti Sherman Act and that the business must dissolve
According to Roosevelt, what were "good" trusts?
businesses that beat other competitors in prieces or management
What department did TR add to his cabinet to help weed out the bad trusts and maintain the good trusts?
Department of Commerce and Labor
Who was the Republican candidate of 1904? Democrat?
TR; Alton Parker
What was the Meat Inspection Act?
gave federal officials the right to inspect meat shipped in interstate commerce to see where it came from and make sure all items were packed in sanitary conditions
Pure Food and Drug Act
manufacture of impure foods, drugs and liquor forbidden and labels had to list the contents of medicines
Newlands Reclamation Act
sales from public land used to build dams and canals to conserve water
What was the Panic of 1907?
when prices fell on Wall Street and businesses failed
What did Roosevelt do?
compromised and allowed JP Morgan to purchase its largest competitor
What was a city manager?
a man who was not a politician but was selected to carry out the laws created by city council
Who was Robert La Follette? or "Battling Bob"?
a govenor elected to Wisconsin govenor and gave the voters many rights and put restrictions on lobbying
What was an Australian ballot?
a white ballot that prevented others (i.e. political bosses) from knowing who a person was voting for
What was a direct primary?
when the voters choose the candidate of a party
What is the Seventeenth Amendment?
gave voters the right to directly vote for their senators
What was the initiative?
gave petioners the right to start a bill with a percent of the voters signatures
what was a recall?
by petition allows an official to stand for relection at any time
What also increased from 1896 to 1914?
womens'rights
muckrakers
reform journalists and novelists
Ida Tarbell
a journalist who wrote angry exposes on Standard Oil Company
ashcan school of art
depicted unusual subjects that depicted alleys and tenements
Payne-Aldrich tariff
- would protect American industries and raise prices for consumers
- hoped to revise the Dingley tariff
-let people down because it was not a significant change from the Dingley tariff
-made Taft lose much of his support
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Ballinger sold government owned coal and when Pinchot argued that he was using favoritism amongst the large companies, Taft stood by Ballinger and fired Pinchot, which made people see him in favor of big business
Mann-Elkins Act
extended the ICC's powers to cover the telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless companies
New Nationalism
TR's reform program (that he created after being dissatisfied with Taft) that called for strict regulation of large corporations, a tariff revision, federal income and inheritance taxes, national workmen's compensation laws, more protection of childeren and women in industry, direct primaries, referendum, and recall.
Who was the Republican candidate for the 1912 election?
La Follete
Who was the 1912 Republican election candidate?
Taft
WHat was the Bull Moose Party?
a party created by TR that had a Progressive platform which called for child labor laws, conseration, minimum wages for women, and direct democracy.
Who did Democrats select for the 1912 election?
Wilson,
Between which two men was the battle of 1912 really against?
Wilson and Roosevelt
What were some of the differences between the Democrat and Republican view?
Democrats for conservation, banking, currency, and lower duties, while Republicans really wanted lower tariffs
Who won the Election of 1912?
Wilson
What is the sixteenth amendment?
income tax
what was Wilson's New Freedom program?
a conservative and traditional approach to business which made government an umpire and tried to restore competion
Woodrow Wilson
Democrat sponsored governor of New Jersey (1910), won the presidency in 1912, sponsored the "New Freedom
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary; led raid of Columbus, New Mexico in response to U.S. government's official recognition of the Carranza regime. They attacked a US Cavalry detachment, seized 100 horses and mules, burned the town, and killed 17 of its residents. Wilson responded by sending American troops under Gen. Pershing into Mexico to capture him; year-long expedition failed and resulted in a clash with Mexican army
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson' platform 1912 ; focused on revitalization of the American economy; viewed monopolies as enemies of free competition; advocted the use of federal power to ensure more equality of opportunity
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
Federal Reserve Act
1913; est the Federal Reserve System; created an independent central system of 12 federal reserve banks; all national banks were required to join; these "reserves" could provide support to individual banks in times of difficulty
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914; act forbade Interlocking directorates, Ownership of stock in competing corporation, Price cutting below cost to eliminate competitor; since labor unions were exempt - boycotts, peaceful strikes and peaceful picketing were legalized. Injunctions could be used to settle labor disputes only when property damage was threatened.
Tampico and Vera Cruz
port cities where clashes between Mexicans and American military forces nearly led to war in 1914
What were the domestic policies of Woodrow Wilson?
Federal Reserve Act of 1913 - succeeded in passing a bill instituting the Federal Reserve

Clayton Antitrust Act 1914 - established a Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair business practices; forbade ownership of stock in competing corporation, Price cutting below cost to eliminate competitor; Since labor unions were exempt from law, boycotts
peaceful strikes and peaceful picketing were legalized.

Espionage and Sedition Acts - outlawed criticism of the government, the armed forces, and the war effort. Violators of the law were imprisoned or fined, and even mainstream publications were censored or banned.


1916 "New Freedom" legislation passed during Wilson's first term included an act improving working conditions for American sailors; the Federal Farm Loan Act, which provided credit for farmers; the Warehouse Act, which helped farmers obtain loans; the Adamson Act, which set an eight-hour workday on interstate railroads; an unemployment compensation act for federal employees; a bill providing greater self-government for the Philippines; and a bill prohibiting child labor.
Algeciras Conference
William II, wanting to gain more power for Germany, traveled to Tangier in March 1905 and delivered an insulting speech concerning his nation's ambitions in Morocco. Tensions rapidly developed and talk of war circulated through Europe. William II realized that Germany was not prepared for war and urged the major powers for an international peace conference
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt expanded power in Latin American to act as "policemen" of the Western Hemisphere and heep European powers out to promote US investment and trade--Roosevelt and later presidents repeatedly sent troops to countries in the West Indies and Central America
New Nationalism
Roosevelt's 1912 platform - much more radical program; accepted big business as a fact of life and proposed a more powerful federal govt and a strong executive to keep it under control; favored both state and federal legislation to actively promote human welfare, including laws to protect women and children in the labor force & workman's compensation for those injured on the job
What is Teddy Roosevelt mainly remembered for?
-Expanding presidential powers
-Trust breaking
-International police power in Latin America (Roosevelt Corollary)
-Square Deal in the Coal Mine Strike
-Federal National Parks
Square Deal
Teddy Roosevelt's approach to social problems; described as a belief that all people should have an equal opportunity to succeed through stron gpersonal ethics, a sense of fairness, & adherence to the spirit of the law
Hepburn Act, 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
Northern Securities case
in 1902, President Roosevelt ordered the Justice Department to bring suit against the Northern Securities Company, a railroad monopoly. The Supreme Court dissolved the company, ruling that it violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. The case helped earn Roosevelt the title of "trustbuster."
Coal Strike of 1902
marked the turn of the U.S. Government from strikebreaker to peacemaker in industrial disputes; low wages, frequent layoffs, requirement to live in cheaply built company towns led 150,000 coal miners to strike - John Mitchell (UMW leader) against George Baer (spokesperson for employers) could not come to an agreement; Roosevelt invited the parties to the White House; he considered sending in federal troops to seize the mines but J.P. Morgan convinced the mine operators to back down.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a socialistic book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions. Public outcry following the book led to the Pure Food & Drug Act and the Meat Inspections bills of TR's term.
Meat Inspection Act
authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections & condemn any unfit for human consumption; resulted from outcry over Upton Sinclair's THE JUNGLE
Panic of 1907
struck the financial world in October 1907; started with a run on several important New York trust companies and spread to the Stock Exchange when speculators found themselves unable to borrow money to meet their obligations.
what was the New Freedom?
pres. wilson's program that wanted to break up trusts into smaller companies to restore the competition that had once existed in the american economy. said if american could not have free enterprise then she could have no freedom at all. wilson worked at this by lowering tariff to create more competition for foreign goods. also imposed graduated income tax to make up for lowering tariffs
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914; act forbade Interlocking directorates, Ownership of stock in competing corporation, Price cutting below cost to eliminate competitor; since labor unions were exempt - boycotts, peaceful strikes and peaceful picketing were legalized. Injunctions could be used to settle labor disputes only when property damage was threatened.Stated that a person's labor was not a "commodity or article of commerce." It further stated that labor unions should not be looked upon as "illegal combinations or conspiracies in restraint of trade under the antitrust laws."
Who was Robert La Follette? or "Battling Bob"?
a govenor elected to Wisconsin govenor and gave the voters many rights and put restrictions on lobbying
Underwood-SImmons Tariff
1913; first substancial drop in import duties since 1857; reduced basic US tariff to 28%, revised income tax under new 16th amendment
Federal Reserve Act
1913; est the Federal Reserve System; created an independent central system of 12 federal reserve banks; all national banks were required to join; these "reserves" could provide support to individual banks in times of difficulty
Sherman Antitrust Act
A law passed in 1890 that outlawed any combination of companies that restrained trade of commerce
Seamen's Act
improved the quarters, food, and wages of marines
Federal Farm Loan Act
provided farmers long term loans at low interest rates