Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ocean circulation systems that are driven by winds around a high pressure system, counterclockwise
deep currents
much slower. water sinks in N atlantic and rises in pacific and indian oceans
about 35 PPT
pole equator circulation
water cools and sinks by poles and warms and rises by equator
temp, salinity, and oxygen all ___ with depth
eutastic sea level rise
due to larger volume of water
relative sea level
local variance due to upward or downward movement of crust
IPCC predictions of sea level rise
.11 to .88 M by 2100
classification of tides
Coasts are
Microtidal: tidal range < 2m
Mesotidal: tidal range 2-4 m
Macrotidal: tidal range >4m
waves of transition
wave refraction
Wave approaches shore at at angle
Closest part hits shallow water first, slows down
Wave approaches shore at at lower angle
wave do what to coasts
straighten them
longshore current
waves coming at steep angle
longshore current causes
beach drift, carrying sand down beach
depositional coasts
deposit, atlantic and gulf
sediment supply for depositional coasts
coastal erosion and rivers
A ridge of sand or gravel that connects an island to the mainland
barrier spits
Sand barriers blocking the mouth of rivers
barrier island migration 2
Probably began forming ~5,000 years ago
Due to sea level rise, have since then been:
1. Migrating landward
2. Thinning
prograding/regressive movement
Advance seaward due to abundant sediment supply
barrier island formation depends on 3
sea level change, sediment supply, storms
river deltas can be affected by 3 different processes
river, tidal and wave processes
tropical deposition 2
coral reefs in clean water and magroves in cloudy waters and river mouths
3 reef types
fringing (rapid subsidence), barrier (slow) and atoll (fast)
ancient coral reefs can be
tsunamis can be from
seismic activity, landslides or volcanic activity
global population dist
40% of global population lives < 100 km from coast
total possible sea level rise
200 ft
2 beach types
reflective: short and steep
dissipative: long and flat with sand bars
storms and waves
storm moves sand down slope, reg waves move it back up
Pilkey’s Truths of Shoreline Armoring
Armoring destroys the beach

Only needed due to over-close development

It meets the needs of only a few

Once you start, you can’t stop (gets bigger)

Armoring costs more than the property it protects
neap tide
A kame is a geological feature, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sorted or stratified sand and gravel that is deposited in contact with the glacial ice.
the phenomenon of melting under pressure and freezing again when the pressure is reduced