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22 Cards in this Set

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Fossil
Preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism
Adaptation
Inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival
Evolution
Change in a kind of organism over time; Process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Natural Selection
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; Also called Survival of the fittest
Homologous Structures
Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
Vestigial Organ (Structure)
Organ that serves no useful function in an organism
Example: Appendix
Speciation
Formation of new species
Gene Pool
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
Genetic Equilibrium
Situation in which allele frequencies remain constant
Genetic Drift
Random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
Directional Selection
Form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; Occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
Disruptive Selection
Form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; Occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
Artificial Selection
Selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Stabilizing Selection
Form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; Occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
Paleontologist
Scientist who studies fossils
Reproductive Isolation
Separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Geographic Isolation
Form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water
Behavioral Isolation
Form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have differences in the courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreeding
Temporal Isolation
Form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce at different times
Founder Effect
Change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
Relative Frequency
Number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of times other alleles occur
Niche
Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions