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81 Cards in this Set

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What type of energy does photosynthesis capture and what is it converted to?
Light to chemical
p 176
What are the producers of the biosphere?
Plants and other autotrophs
p 176
What do autotrophs use to produce organic molecules?
CO2
p 176
How are chemotrophs different from autotrophs?
Chemotrophs use chemical energy and autotrophs use light energy.
p 176
What are the 2 modes of nutrition, and which one is the major one?
Autotroph (major)
Heterotroph
p 176
Where does photosynthesis occur in a plant?
Leaves; chloroplast; thylakoid membrane
p 178
What is the green pigment located in chloroplasts?
Chlorophyll
p 178
How does CO2 enter the leaf?
Stomata
p 178
How does O2 exit the leaf?
Stomata
p 178
Where does chlorophyll reside?
Thylakoid membranes
p 178
How are the products of photosynthesis distributed amongst the reactants?
CO2:
C - Glucose
O - Glucose and Water
H2O:
H - Glucose and water
O - Oxygen
6CO2 + 12H20 » C6H12)6 + 6H2O + 6O2
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O » C6H12O6 + 6O2
p 179
How many repetitions of photosynthesis is needed to produce Glucose?
6
p 179
Where is the O2 given off by plants derived from?
H2O
p 179
Why does the plant split water?
To give H to Glucose and water
& produce O2 as a by product
p 179
What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?
1. Light reactions
2. Calvin cycle
p 180
Where does the electrons and hydrogen transferred to NADP+ come from?
Water.
p 180
What is the primary function of NADP+?
Temporarily stores the energized electrons from water.
p 180
What is the electron acceptor of the light reactions?
NADP+
p 180
What is the difference between NAD+ and NADP+?
NADP+:
-phosphates that offer free energy.
-Photosynthesis
-Anabolic
NAD+:
-Cellular Respiration
-Catabolic
p 180
What drives the generation of ATP in photosynthesis?
Photophosphorylation
p 180
What 2 compounds form from light energy being converted to chemical energy?
NADPH (electrons) & ATP (energy currency)
p 180
Where does the CO2 come from to begin the Calvin Cycle?
Air
p 180
What is the term used for incorporating CO2 into organic molecules?
Carbon fixation
p 181
What gets reduced in the Calvin Cycle?
Carbon (from the CO2) to make Carbohydrates (sugar)
p 181
What provides the reducing power in the Calvin Cycle?
NADP
What provides the chemical energy to convert CO2 to Carbohydrates?
ATP
p 181
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
In the Stroma of a chloroplast
p 180
What type of radiation is seen by the human eye?
Visible Light
p 181
What are the discrete particles of light?
Photons
p 181
What color in the visible light spectrum has the highest radiation?
Red (750 nm)
p 181
As the wavelength of light decrease, the amount of energy ________.
increases
(inverse relationship)
p 181
What type of radiation drives photosynthesis?
Visible light
p 181
What particles absorb visible light?
Pigments
p 181
What range do the different wavelengths of visible light encompass? (nm)
380 (violet) to 750 (red)
This instrument measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength?
Spectrophotometer
p 182
Light can perform work in chloroplasts only if it is _______?
Absorbed
p 182
What are the 3 types of pigments extracted from chloroplasts?
1. Chlorophyll A
2. Chlorophyll B
3. Carotenoids
p 183
What color light works best for photosynthesis?
Red and blue; green is least effective.
p 183
What pigment(s) participate directly in light reactions?
Chlorophyll A
p 183
If chlorophyll B and carotenoids cannot directly participate in the light reactions, what purpose do they serve?
Absorb light and transfer energy to chlorophyll A.
p 183
What is the absorption spectrum for Chlorophyll A?
Blue-Green
p 183
What is the absorption spectrum for Chlorophyll A?
Yellow-green
p 183
What is the absorption spectrum for Carotenoids?
Yellow-orange
p 183
What is an important function of some cartenoids?
Photoprotection: absorb and dissipate excessive light that would otherwise damage chlorophyll
p.183
Where does chlorophyll, proteins and other organic molecules reside?
Photosystems
p.184
What is also known as the light gathering antenna complex?
Photosystems
p.184
What is special about the chlorophyll A molecule?
It is located in the reaction center of the photosystem.
p.184
Where does the first light-driven chemical reaction of photosynthesis occur?
Reaction center in the photosystems of the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast.
p.184
What redox reaction begins the light reactions of photosynthesis?
The excited chlorophyll A loses electrons to the primary electron acceptor.
p.185
What 2 components make up the reaction center?
1. Primary electron acceptor
2. Chlorophyll A
p.184-5
What is the reaction center chlorophyll of photosystem I known as?
P700 (absorbs wavelengths of 700 nm)
p.185
What is name of the reaction center chlorophyll of photosystem II?
P680 (absorbs 600 nm wavelength of light)
p 185
What 2 routes do electrons flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis, and which one is predominant?
Cyclic and Noncyclic (predominant)
p. 185
Why does each pigment have a unique absorption spectrum?
They absorb photons corresponding to specific wavelengths.
p 184
What term is used to describe ATP synthesis in photosynthesis?
Photophosphorylation
p 186
How many electrons are required to reduce NADP+?
2
p 186
What is the main difference between noncyclic electron flow and cyclic electron flow?
Noncyclic:
Uses Photosystem II & I
Products are O2, NADPH, ATP

Cyclic:
Only uses Photosystem I
Products are ATP only.
p 187
What is the purpose of noncyclic electron flow?
It produces the extra ATP required for the Calvin cycle that consumes more ATP than NADPH.
p 187
What does ATP and NADPH offer the Calvin Cycle?
ATP - Chemical energy
NADPH - Reducing Power

Both to synthesize sugar in the Calvin cycle
p 187
What regulates which pathway the electrons will take through the light reactions?
[NADPH] in the chloroplast
p 187
What mechanism do chloroplasts and mitochondria use to generate ATP?
Chemiosmosis
p 188
What are cytochromes and where are they found?
Iron-containing proteins found in chloroplasts and mitochondria.
p 188
What is an important difference between phosphorylation in chloroplasts and mitochondria?
Chloroplasts transform light energy into chemical energy to drive electrons to the top of the transport chain

Mitochondria transfers chemical energy from food molecules to ATP.
p 188
Where does chemiosmosis occur in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria?
Mitochondria: H+ protons pumped from the Matrix to the Intermembrane Space

Chloroplast: H+ protons pumped from the stroma to the Thylakoid Space.
p 188
Where is NADPH and ATP produced?
In the stroma of the Chloroplast (where the Calvin cycle takes place)
p 188
Compare chemiosmosis in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts.
Mitochondria:
Matrix (Low H+)-Inner Membrane-Intermembrane Space (High H+)

Chloroplast:
Stroma(Low H+)-Thylakoid Membrane-Thylakoid Space (High H+)
p 188
Where does the electron transport chain (ETC) sit in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria?
Chloroplasts: Thylakoid Membrane
Mitochondria: Inner Membrane
p 188
In what form does Carbon enter and leave the Calvin cycle?
Enters in CO2
Leaves in Sugar
p 189
What is the carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle?
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)
(3 C sugar)
p 189
How many times must the cycle turn and how many CO2 molecules are used to make one G3P sugar?
3 times; 3 CO2
p 189
What does CO2 attach to the Calvin cycle?
Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP)=5 C sugar
p 190
What enzyme adds CO2 to RuBp?
Rubisco (RuBP Carboxylase)
p 190
What is the most abundant protein on earth?
Rubisco
p 190
For every # molecules of CO2 there are # molecules of G3P?
3; 6
p 190
How many molecules are regenerated to make RuBP in the Calvin cycle?
5
p 191
How many times must the cycle turn and how many CO2 molecules are used to make one G3P sugar?
3 times; 3 CO2
p 189
What term is used to describe ATP synthesis in photosynthesis?
Photophosphorylation
p 186
How much ATP and NADPH are required to make one G3P molecule?
9 ATP & 6 NADPH are consumed
p 191
What process adds O2 to the Calvin cycle instead of CO2, and how much ATP and sugar is generated?
Photorespiration; No ATP, No Sugar!
p 191
How much CO2, ATP, and NADPH does the Calvin cycle use to produce one glucose molecule?
6; 18; 12
p 191