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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a general evaluation of some object. This evaluation usually falls along a good-bad or favorable-unfavorable continuum. (1)
basic category
categories into which people are prouped rahter automatically on perception. THese categories are: race, gender or age. (1)
cultural stereotype
consensually or widely shared beliefs about a group (1)
negative behavior twds someone based on their membership in a group. (1)
individual stereotype
the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group. (1)
any gp with which one affiliates oneself. Any group to which one belongs (1)
minimal group
groups formed on arbitrary or random criteria (random assignment) (1)
the impetus to do some behacior (or avoid doing some behavior) and to keep doing it, to meet ones goals. (1)
any group with which on e dos not affiliate oneself. Any group to which one does not belong (1)
a biased eval of a group, based on real or imagined characteristics of the group (1)
realistic conflict therory
states that prejudice and sterotyping arise from the competition between groups for scace, valued resources. (1)
a hierarchically organized, cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus, and its attributes and the relations between those attributes (1)
a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people (1)
process whereby a new category is created to accommodate stereotype-inconsistent menbers of a group about which one holds neg stereotypes. (1)
contact hypthesis
the prediction that intergroup prejudice will diminish (or be eliminated)when the two groups are brought into contact with one another (2)
Illusory correlation
the overstrimation of the associations between two variables that are either weakly or not related at all. (2)
implicit theories
our individual beliefs about the nature of personality, and the behaviors, attitudes and values associated with certain types of individuals. (2)
Ingroup bias
the tendenct to favor, and have postitive aggect for, members of ones own group, and to attribute mroe postive characteristics to ones ingrop than to outgroups. (2)
minimal groups
a group formed on the basis of some (sometimes trivial)criteria, and which is otherwise devoid of the normal aspects of group life, such as face to face interactions, group norms, interactions with other groups, and a group structure. (2)
optimal distinctiveness theory
a theory that suggests that our social motives are governed by an alternating tension between our need to be our own unique person, and our need to belong to groups. We are therefore motivated to find and affiliate with groups that cna help provide a balance between these opposing needs. (2)
outgroup homogeneity
the belief that members of outgroups are more similar to eacho other than are members of ones ingroups (they all look alike) (2)
realistic conflict theory
a theopry of intergroup conflict that states that when groups are competing for scarce resources, prejudice and hostility between the groups will result. (2)
relative deprivation therory
a theory that states that when groups perceive that they are at a disadvantage, relative to an outgroup, in their attainment of important groups goals, the group that feels disadvantages (or deprived) will feel prejudice and resentment toward the other group. (2)
scapegoat theory
a theory that postulates that when an individual becvomes thwarted from a particular goal, he or she may feel anger, irritation, or disappointment. that anger is similar to the neg affect we feel twds disliked outgroups, and eventually, the outgroup is blamed for the ingroups failure to attain their goals, and the ingoups feels prejudice twsa the outgroup. (2)
social indentity theory
a theory that states that the need for pos self-esteem motivates individuals to perceive people in the environment in terms of ingroups and outgroups, which suggests that people can get postive self-esteem either by their own accomplishments, or by affiliating with high-status groups. (2)
the tendenct to create a special, separate cognitive category for deviant (ex. sterotype-disconfirming) member of a sterotyped outgruop, so that the stereotype can remain intact. (2)
superordinate goal
a tast that, if it is to be completed successfully, requieres the cooperative efforts of two (or more) groups.
attitude object
any idea, object, place or person about which one forms an attitue (3)
aversive racism
type of racism whereby the individual believes he or she is nonprejudiced, but still harbors neg feelings about the outgroup. (3)
chronic racial affect
ones stable feeling twds a race outgroup. (3)
dissociation model of prejudice
Devine's model of prejudice, which states that there is no relationship between explicit (ie self-report) measures of prejudice (such as the modern Racism Scales) and the degree of implicit stereotyping in low-prejudiceded persons. Low- prejudicied persons are able to inhibit their stereotpic thoughts soon after such thoughts are activated, resulting in nmo correlation between explict measures of prejudice and measures of the automatic activation of stereotypes in low-prejudiceded persons. (3)
eposodic racial affect
ones affective reaction to a specific member of a race outgroup. (3)
explicit memory
conscious recollection of memories. All the episodic and general info that is in long-tem memory, and that is available for conscious recollection. (3)
implicit memory
an unintentional, nonconscious form of memory. Stimuli can be perceived w/o awareness, and this info can later influence thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. (3)
implicit stereotyping
the introspectively unidentified (ex. nonconscious) traces of past experiences that influence perceptions of outgroup members. Exposure to prior stereotype-relevant ifo below the level of awareness can later influence one's attitufes, feeling, and behavior twds the relevant outgorup. (3)
incidental affect
affect that arises in situations unrelated to the intergroup context. (3)
integral affect
affect that originates w/in the intergroup situation involving the sterotyped outgroup. This type of aaffect also can aise from merely thinking about the outgroup. (3)
stereotype suppression
the conscious effort to avoid thinking about stereotypes. results in stereotype rebound in some low-prejudiced persons. (3)
perceptions of a stimulus w/out consciouis awareness of perceiving the stimulus. (3)