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250 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what layer receives thalamic input (esp. in he primary somatosensory cortex)?
layer IV
what layer has medium and large pyramidal cells which give rise to projections in subcortical layers?
internal pyramidal layer (V)
what layer projects to the thalamus?
Layer VI
what layer has a variety of cell types and whose pyramidal cells project to the thalamus?
the multiform layer (VI)
what kind of matter makes up the cortex?
grey matter
what do assoiciation fibers interconnect between?
portions of the cortex in the SAME HEMISPHERE
what do commissural fibers interconnect?
the two hemispheres
where do the association and commissural fibers terminate?
in layer II (external granular layer)
what do arcuate fibers connect between and what type of fiber are they?
connect between adjacent gyri and are association fibers
what types of association fibers connect between different lobes (But in the same hemisphere!!!!)
cingulum
superior and inferior occipital fasciculi
uncinate fasciculus
where are most of the commissural fibers found?
in the corpus callosum
where else, besides the corpus callosum, can commissural fibers be found?
anterior and posterior commissures
where do projection fibers project to?
away from the cortex... sometimes to the spinal cord
where do projection fibers or CORTICOFUGAL SYSTEMS come out of?
layer V (internal pyramidal)
what layer receives association/commisural info from layer III?
layer II
what layer send out association and commissural info to layer II?
Layer III
what layer receive thalamic input?
Layer IV
what layer sends info out of the cortex?
layer V
what layer projects info to the thalamus?
layer VI
what are the two branches of the vertebral arteries?
posterior inferior cerebellar
anterior spinal arteries
what do the 2 superior cerebellar arteries supply?
superior cerebellum
what is the corpus collosum?
fiber bundle that interconnects the two hemispheres and allows for communication between the two
what two parts make up the forebrain or prosencephalon?
telencephalon
diencephalon
where is the diencephalon located?
just underneath the corpus collosum
what are the two parts that make up the diencephalon?
thalamus
hypothalamus
what is the function of the thalamus?
it is the major relay center for all sensory functions except olfaction
what is the function of the hypothalamus?
it is involved in the maintenance of homeostasis/equilibrium and motivated behaviors
it funtions in concert with the autonomic and endocrine systems
-infundibulum
-mammillary bodies
-pineal
what does thalamus mean?
"inner chamber"
what is another name for the midbrain?
mesencephalon
what ist he function of the mesencephalon?
it connects the telencephalon to the rest of the brain
where are the cerebral peducles found?
on the midbrain
where is the sustantia nigra found?
midbrain
where is the red nucleus found?
mid brain
from what part of the brain do CN III and IV take their origin?
the mesencephalon
what make up the tectum?
2 superior and 2 inferion colliculi
what are the corpora quadrigemina?
the tectum (2superior and 2 inferior colliculi)
where are the motor fiber tracts found?
on the cerebral peduncles of the mesencephalon
what cells give rise to association and commissural fibers?
pyramidal cells in the III layer
what is the rhombencephalon?
the hindbrain
what are the two parts of the rhombencephalon?
metencephalon (pons and cerebellum)
myelencephalon (medula oblongata)
what part of the brain is the origin and conduit of numerous fiber tracts which ascen, descen, or enter the cerebellum?
the pons
what is the origin of CN V-VII?
the pons
what is proprioceptive information?
information about the position of a limb in space
what part of the brain processes proprioceptive information from muscles, tendons, and joints in order to coordinate motor activty?
cerebellum
what are the lobes of the cerebellum?
anterior
posterior
flocconodular
what part of the hindbrain is mostly mylenated?
the myelencephalon or medulla oblongata
what part of the brain contains cells of origin of numerous fiber tracts?
medulla oblongata
what part of the brain has the nucleus cuneatus and gracilis and what are their functions?
the medulla oblongata
they are important sensory relay nuclei
what part of the brain is the origin of CN IX-XII?
medulla oblongata
where is the reticular formation found?
on the medulla oblongata
what parts of the brain make up the brainstem?
medulla oblongata
pons
midbrain
what part of the brain (besides the forebrain) does NOT make up the brain stem?
cerebellum
what is the purpose of the cerebral spinal fluid?
-protect brain
-give brain boyancy in the skull
-provides communication within the brain via the vascular system
what structure in the brain makes the cerebral spinal fluid?
the choroid plexus
what is the choriod plexus?
it is a highly vascularized connective tissue that is covered with an ependymal layer that products the CSF
what is the dermal layer origin of the connective tissue found in the choroid plexus?
mesodermal
what is CN V?
Trigeminal
What is CN VI?
Abducens Nerve
what is the flow direction of the CSF?
one way
lateral ventricles-> 3rd-> 4th-> out to venous system through foramen
where is the choroid plexus found?
in the lateral ventricle
what forms the roof of the 3rd and 4th ventricles?
the choroid plexus
where is the lateral ventricle found?
in the cavity of the telencephalon
what is 2-4 mm thick, highly convoluted grey sustance,and comprises almost half of the brain's volume?
the cerebral cortex
what are the two divisions of the cortex?
neocortex (isocortex)
allocortex
what does allocortex mean?
"other cortex"
how many layers are found in the neocortex?
6
what two kinds of cortex make up the allocortex?
the paleocortex and archicortex
what kind of cortex is the olfactory cortex?
paleocortex
what kind of cortex is the hippocampal cortex?
archicortex
what cell types make up the neocortex?
neurons and glial cells
what types of neurons are found in the neocortex?
pyramidal, stellate, basket cells
what types of glial cells are found in the neocortex?
oligodendrocytes
microglia
astrocytes
what layer of the neocortex is most superficial, has relatively few neurons and lots of dendrites and axons?
molecular layer (I)
what layer is layer I?
molecular layer
what layer is layer II?
external granular layer
what layer is layerIII?
external pyramidal layer
what layer is layer IV?
internal granular layer
what layer is layer V?
internal pyramidal layer
what layer is layer VI?
multiform layer
what layer is made of most ly small neurons and a few pyramidal neurons?
external granular layer (II)
What is CN VII?
Facial Nerve
What is CN IX?
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
what layer is composed of mainly stellate neruons and has some pyramidal cells?
internal granular layer (Layer IV)
what layer receives inputs from layer III?
layer II
What is CN X?
Vagus nerve
What is CN XII?
Hypoglossal
What is CN VIII?
Acoustic or Vestibulocchlear
What is CN XI?
the Spinal Accessory nerve
What kind of a nerve is CN I?
sensory
what is the name of CN I?
the olfactory nerve
what is the name of CN II?
Optic nerve
What kind of a nerve is CN II?
sensory
What is CN III?
Occulomotor
what is CN IV?
Trochlear Nerve
how many horns are found on the lateral ventricle?
3 anterior, posterior, inferior
What kind of nerve is CN III?
motor
What kind of a nerve is CN IV?
motor
what is the function of the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius?
connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles
where is the interventricular foramen of Monro found?
between the lateral and 3rd ventricles (connects the two)
In what part of the brain is the 3rd ventricle found?
in the cavity of the diencephalon
where is the 4th ventricle found?
in the cavity of the metencephalon and myelencephalon (hindbrain)
what foramen are continuous with the subarachnoid space?
the foramen of Magendie
the two foramen of Luschka
What matter makes up the cerebral cortex?
grey matter
what matter contains fiber pathways?
white matter
what are the 5 cerebral lobes?
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
insular
What is another word for the forebrain?
Prosencephaoln
What is a gyrus?
a fold in the brain
What is a sulcus?
A groove between gyri
What is the telencephalon?
the cerebrum
What connects the two hemispheres of the the cerebrum?
the corpus callosum
What is the grey matter composed of?
Nerve Cells (unmylenated)
What composes the white matter of the CNS?
mylenateld axons
Which is superficial, grey or white matter?
grey matter
which is deep, grey or white matter?
white matter
what are the major areas of the frontal lobe?
motor (precentral gyrus) and premotor areas
what are the major areasof of the parietal lobe?
sensory (postcentral gyrus) and association areas
what lobe contains the moror and premotor areas?
the frontal lobe
what lobe contains the sensory and association areas?
the parietal lobe
what area is found in the temporal lobe?
auditory areas
what lobe contains the auditory areas?
temporal lobe
what areas are found in the occipital lobe?
visual and association areas
what lobe are the visual and association areas found in?
occipital lobe
where is the insular lobe located?
inside the lateral fissure
in what division of the brain are the basal ganglia found?
the telencephalon (cerebrum)
what are the major sulci or fissures of the telencephalon?
central sulcus
lateral fissure
parieto-occipital sulcus
calcarine fissure
what sulcus divides the fronal lobe from the parietal lobes?
the central sulcus
what fissure divides the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes?
lateral fissure
what does the calcarine fissure go through?
the middle of the occipital lobes
what does the calcarine fissure go through?
the middle of the occipital lobes
what area is found in the calcarine fissure?
the primary visual area
what are the major gyri of the telecephalon?
precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
temporal gyri (sup. mid. inf.)
cingulate gyrus
parahippocampal
where is the primary motor cortex found?
in the precentral gyrus
what lobe is the precentral gyrus found on?
frontal lobe
what lobe is the post central gyrus found on?
parietal
where is the primary sematosensory cortex found?
on the postcentral gyrus
what does the cingulate gyrus surround?
the corpus callosum
where is the parahippocampal gyrus found?
beneath the corpus callosum
what two gyri make up the limbic system?
the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus
what is the function of the limbic system?
emoition or affect
what part of the brain is the output from the cerebellum to descending motor pathways relay through?
the thalamus
what does the primary motcortex do?
drives basic movement
what is the function of the posterior communicating arteries?
connect the posterior cerebral arteries with the carotid arteries
what does the anterior inferior cerebellar artery supply?
the anterior and inferior surface of the cerebellum
what are the branches off of the basilar artery?
posterior cerebral artery
superior cerebellar artery
pontine arteries
internal auditory artery
anterior inferior cerebellar artery
the basilar artery is formed when what two arteries converge?
the two vertebral arteries
where is the basilar artery found?
it sits on top of the pons
what do the two posterior cerebral arteries supply?
posterior and interior potion of the cerebrum
where does the vertebral artery come off of?
the subclavian a.
what do the vertebral arteries go through?
the transverse foramen
what is the function of the circle of willis?
it provides collateral circulation
so that if one carotid artery is blocked, the full brain can still be supplied with blood
what do the pontine arteries supply and how many are there?
the pons and there are three pairs of arteries
what does the internal auditory artery supply?
the inner ear
which meningeal layer is thick and tough?
the dura mater
what foramen do the internal carotid arteries cross over?
foramen lacerum
what are meninges?
coverings over the brain
what is the function of the meninges?
they act like seatbelts for the brain, protecting it from jaring
what is the superficial layer of the meninges?
dura matter
which of the meninges is a double layer?
dura matter
what are the two layers of dura matter?
periosteal and meningeal
what is the middle layer of the meninges?
arachnoid layer
which layer is thin, spider weblike and virtually transparent?
arachnoid layer
what is the deep meningeal layer?
pia matter
which layer is thin and delicate and closely adheres to the brain's surface?
pia mater
what is found in the subarachnoid space?
the cerebral spinal fluid
where is the subarachnoid space?
between the arachnoid and pia mater
what are arachnoid granulations?
extensions of arachnoid through the dura mater into the venous sinus (superior sagittal)
which venous sunus do the arachnoid granulations extend into?
superior sagittal
what is the function of the arachnoid granulations?
they permit the CSF to enter the circulatory system
what is subduralhemotoma?
bleeding into the space btwn the dura mater and arachnoid layers
what specialization of the dura mater is a thickening in the midline of the brain that divides the two hemispheres?
the falx cerebri
what specialization of the dura mater is a thickening between the cerebellum and divides its two hemispheres?
falx cerebelli
what specialization of the dura mater forms a covering or tent over the top of the cerebelum?
tentorium cerebelli
what specialization of the dura mater forms a covering over the sella torcia of the sphenoid?
diaphragma sellae
what specialization of the dura mater anchors the pituitary glands to the sella turcica?
diaphragma sellae
what are the five dural venous sinuses?
superior sagittal sinus
inferior sagittal sinus
straight sinus
transverse sinus
sigmoid sinus
what sinuses drain into the transverse sinus?
superior sagittal
inferior sagittal
straight sinuses
what is the direction of blood flow in the dural venous sinuses?
from front to back (drain to transverse sinus and then sigmoid sinus and then internal jugular vein)
the sigmoid sinus collects blood from the _______ sinus and then becomes the __________ vein
transverse
internal jugular
what forms the dural venous sinuses?
the opening between the two dural layers (periosteal and meningeal)
what branches come off of the internal carotid arteries?
anterior cerebral artery
middle cerebral artery
posterior communicating artery
what does the internal carotid artery come off of?
the aortic arch
through which hole do the internal carotid arteries enter the skull?
carotid canal
what artery supplies the medial side of the brain?
anterior cerebral artery
what artery supplies the lateral hemispheres of the brain?
middle cerebral artery
what comes off of the middle cerebral arteries?
the lenticulostirate arteries
what arteries supply the basal ganglia?
lenticulostriate arteries
what is the purpose of the CSF?
protective layer
boyancy in skull
way for communication within the brain through the vascular system
what are basal ganglia?
deep grey matter in telencephalon
nerve cells deep in the CNS--should be nuclei
what are the five subcortical nuclei found in the basal ganglia?
caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus (internal and external)
subthalamic nucleus (STN)
Substantia Nigra
what are the two parts of the Substantia nigra?
SNc pars compacta
SNr pars reticulata
which of the basal ganglia have a tail?
caudate nucleus
which of the basal ganglia nuclei forms the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle?
caudate nucleus
what basal ganglial nucleus is found in the curve of the caudate?
putamen
what basal ganglial nucleus is found on the inner side of the putamen?
the globus pallidus
what basal ganglial nucleus is found above the hypothalamis and below the thalamus?
subthalamic nucleus
what subcortical nuclei make up the striatum?
caudate and the putamen
what subcortical nuclei make up the lentiform nucleus?
putamen and globus pallidus
what subcortical nuclei make up the corpus striatum?
caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
what is the internal capsule?
where does it start, go through and go to?
descending axons that goes from the precentral gyrus, through the space between the caudate and putamen, to the corticospinal tract
what are striatal afferents?
parts of the brain that send information TO the striatum
what are striatal efferents?
neural bodies that bring information away from the striatum
what are the two options the neural impulse has to go after going to the caudate/putamen? (2 striatal efferents)
globus pallidus (external) GPe OR

Globus pallidus (internal)GPi
after going to the external globus pallidus, (indirect pathway) where does the neural impulse go next??
to the subthalamic nucelus
After exiting the Globus pallidus internal (GPi) where does the neural impulse go to? (both direct and indirect pathways)
to the Ventral Lateral nucleus of the THALAMUS (VL)
after the subthalamic nucleus, where does the indirect pathway carry the neural impulse?
to the GPi
Where does the thalamus project to?
the cortex
what arteries supply the basal ganglia and the internal capsule?
the lenticulostriate arteries
What is the function of the basal ganglia?
determine a motor program so that the right set of muscles contract in the right order
what are the steps of the direct pathway?
cortex-- striatum--GPi--VA or VL of the thalamus--motor area of the cortex--spinal cord--muscles
what are the steps of the indirect pathway?
cortex--striatum--GPe--subthalamic nucleus--GPi--VA/VL of thalamus--cortex--spinalcord--muscles
what is the function of the substantia niagra?
it facilitates the flow through the striatum by releasing dopamine
what part of the substantia nigra produces the dopamine?
the compacta
what part of the substantia nigra is similar to the globus pallidus?
the reticulata
what structure produces seratonin?
dorsal raphe nerve
what does "cerebellum" mean?
little brain in latin
is the cerebellum sensory or motory?
neither.... although both are mapped onto it!!!

instead the cerebellum compares motor info to sense info about what is really happening
If there were a defict in the coordination of limb and eye MOVEMENT, balance, and muscle tone, where would the lesion be found?
in the cerebellum
If there were a reduction in strength and speed of movement and the inability to contract individual muscles, where would the lesion be found?
in the motor cortex
what is the function of the cerebellum?
it compares the brain's intention (i.e. motor program) with the perfomance of the muscles.

It makes sure that the motor programs are carried out with high fidelity
where does the sensory information that the cerebellum recieves about the motor performance from the periphery come from?
from the dorsal spinocerebellar tract
what is internal feedback?
afferent informaion about motor planning FROM BRAIN CENTERS concerned with motor programming and execution
what is another word for internal feeback?
corollary discharge.
what is external feedback?
sensory information about MOTOR PERFORMANCE FROM PERIPHERY occurring during the course of movement
what is another word for external feedback?
reafference
what do the internal and external feedback allow the cerebellum to compare?
the motor program (f/ internal) to the actual motor response (f/ external)
what are the descending motor pathways that relay the adjusted motor program from the cerebellum?
corticospinal
corticobulbar
rubrospinal
reticulospinal
what divides the anterior lobe of the cerebellum from its posterior lobe?
the primary fissure
what wormlike structure divides the two cerebellar hemispheres?
the vermis
what are the three cerebral peduncles?
superior
middle
inferior
what are the three lobes of the cerebellum?
anterior
posterior
flocconodular
what are the four deep cerebellar nuclei in the order of most medial to most lateral?
fastigial
globose
emboliform
dentate
what two deep cerebellar nuclei mate up the interposed nucleus?
the globose and the emboliform
what is the function of the spinocerebellum?
it receives descending motor input from the cortex as it goes out to the muscles
which nucleus does the information leaving the cerebellum going to the medial descending systems go through?
the fastigial nucleus
which nucleus does info leaving the cerebellum going to the lateral descending systems go through?
interposed nucleus
which nucleus does the information going our of the cerebrocerebellum to the cortex go through?
dentate nucleus
explain the flow of information through the cerebellum
the CORTEX sends information to the DIRECT OR INDIRECT PATHWAY forming a motor program. This motor program is sent through the PONS to the CEREBELLUM (to spinocerebellum) to the MUSCLES

then the external feedback from the DORSAL SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT enters the CEREBELLUM (via cerebrocerebellum)

CEREBELLUM compares the two and sens our motor execution info to the muscles via the fastigial and interposed nuclei, and motor planning info to the cortex via the dentate nucleus
where is the vestibularcerebellum found?
on the flocconodular lobe of the cerebellum
where does the cerebellum get its afferent sensory information from?
the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and the vestibular nuclei
where does the cerebellum get its afferent (input) motor information from?
from the pontine nuclei
where must all of the outputs of all of the deep cerebellar nuclei go to?
the VL nucleus of the thalamus and ultimately back to the motor cortex
what supplies the lobes in the telencephalon with CSF?
the two lateral ventricles
what is the function of the anterior communicating artery and what does it come off of?
it allower interconnection between the two anterior cerebrl arteries (allows full blood supply to all of brain even if one carotid artery is blocked)

comes off of the anterior cerebral artery
in which layer of the cortex are the association and commissural fibers located?
in layer III (external pyramidal)
what are the three possible areas of the cortex that the thalamus can project to when sending a motor program back to the cortex?
premotor cortex
supplementary motor cortex
primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
in what cavity is the cerebral aqueduct found?
in the cavity of the mesencephalon
what is the function of cerebrocerebllum?
receives sense info from the limbs and then sends the new info to the motor cortex
what is the central canal?
the cavity in the spinal cord
what sulcus divides the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe?
parieto-occipital sulcus
what layer is made of medium sized pyramidal cells which give rise to association and commissural fibers?
external pyramidal layer (III)