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28 Cards in this Set

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What does the cell doctrine state?
All living things are composed of cells.

A cell is the smallest unit exhibiting all characteristics of life.

All cells come from preexisting cells.
What are the types of microscopes as we know them today?
Light microscope- magnifies up to 1000 times.

TEM developed 1950s- shows internal cell structure, magnifies up to 1 million times.

SEM developed 1970s- studies external surface of cells.
Define protoplasm.
The part of the cell made up by the cytoplasm (internal region of the cell which also includes organelles) and the nucleus.
Define diffusion.
A way that substances can pass through the cell membrane.

SMALL molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to LOW concentration.
Define osmosis.
A way that water can pass through the cell membrane.

WATER from an area of HIGH concentration to LOW concentration.
Define facilitated transport.
A way that substances can pass through the cell membrane.

A molecule attaches to a transport protien and moves from an area of HIGH concentration to LOW concentration.
Define active transport.
A way that substances can pass through the cell membrane.

Movement of ions and large molecules against a common gradient. It requires ATP.
Define endocytosis.
A way that substances can pass through the cell membrane.

Formation of vesicles (pinocytosis) or vacuoles (phagocytosis).
Define pinocytosis.
"Cell drinking." Cell takes in large molecules that are soluble in water. Forms a vesicle.
Define phagocytosis.
"Cell eating." Cell takes in large material that is not in solution. Forms a vacuole.
What are microvilli and where are they common?
Foldings of the cell membrane to increase the absorptive surface.

Common in cells that function in absorption of many materials, e.g. cells lining the small intestine.
What are desmosomes?
Cell junctions between adjacent cells.
What is the function of endoplasmic reticulum?
Transports molecules throughout the cell.
What to ribosomes do?
They function in protien synthesis- they put amino acids together to form new proteins.
What are the two parts to the Golgi apparatus, and in what does this organelle function?
Two parts: Golgi sacs, Golgi vesicles.

Three functions: Synthesizing carbohydrates; packagning proteins into enzymes; forming new membranes.
What does the mitochondria do?
It's the "powerhouse" of the cell. It is the site of cellular respiration- it produces ATP.
What do lysosomes do?
They digest food, and break down cells after death.
What encloses food in pinocytosis?
Vesicle. (small)
What encloses food in phagocytosis?
Vacuole. (large)
What are microtubules?
Narrow, elongate, HOLLOW rods.

(tube = hollow)

Found in cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella, and centrioles.
What are microfilaments?
Narrow, elongate, SOLID rods.

(fill (filled) = solid)

Found in cytoskeleton and muscle cells.
What are the parts of the nucleus? Describe each.
Nuclear membrane- double membrane with pores to connect it to cytoplasm.

Nucleolus (1 or 2 present)- dense, contains RNA.

Nucleoplasm- contains chromatin material that consists of DNA.
What are the stages of mitosis?
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
Describe interphase.
Three events: G1 (cell growth); S (DNA replicated); G2 (prepares for division)

Nuclear memrane distinct; nucleolus present; chromosomes indistinct.
Describe prophase.
Centrioles replicate and move to opposite poles of cells; chromosomes visible in a circular arrangement; nuclear membrane and nucleoli disappear.
Describe metaphase.
Chromosomes are lined in the center of the cell.
Describe anaphase.
The centromere divides and the two chromosomes separate and are moved to opposite poles.
Describe telophase.
Daughter chromosomes reach opposite poles and stain. Cytokinesis occurs- the cytoplasmic organelles replicate and divide. Cleavage furrow / equatorial plate forms.