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108 Cards in this Set

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T/F
Dorsal body cavity consists of the Cranial cavity (brain) and vertebral column (backbone)/vertebral (spinal) canal.
True
What are the meninges?
Three layers of protective tissue that line the dorsal body cavity
What separates the thoracic cavity from the adbominopelvic cavity?
The diaphragm (dome-shaped muscle)
What are the organs inside the ventral body cavity called?
Viscera
What makes up the ventral (anterior) body cavity?
Superior thoracic and inferior abdominopelvic cavities
The thoracic cavity is the superior or anterior part of the ventral body cavity?
Superior
What is the mediastinum?
Central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; from sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphragm
What is located in the mediastinum?
Heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large bld vessels
What is the main difference between negative and positive feedback systems?
Negative feedback reverses the original stimulus
Positive feedback enhances/reinforces/ intensifies the original stimulus
Whar are the 3 basic components of a feedback system?
Receptors
Control Center
Effectors
T/F
Negative feedback reverses a change in a controlled condition
True
T/F
Usually, positive feedback systems reinforce conditions that do not happen very often, whereas negative feedback systems regulate conditions in the body that remain fairly stable over long periods.
True
Define lateral
Farther from the midline
T/F
In the Anatomical position the subject stands erect facing the observer, head level, eyes facing directly forward, feet flat and directed forward, arms at sides w/palms turned forward
True
T/F
Prone means lying face down
True
T/F
Supine means lying face up
True
Name the major regions of the external body
Head (skull/face)
Neck (supports head/attaches to trunk)
Trunk (chest, abs, pelvis)
Upper limbs (shoulder, armpit, arm forearm, wrist, hand)
Lower limbs (buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, foot)
What is a sagittal plane?
Vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides
Sagittal
Verticle, Right/left side
What is a midsagittal plane or medial plane?
Vertical, EQUAL right and left sides
Parasagittal Plane is?
Vertical, UNEQUAL right/left sides
What is a frontal or coronal plane?
Front (anterior) to back (posterior)
What is a transverse plane?
Divides into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
T/F
Other names for a transverse plane are cross-sectional or horizontal planes
True
What is an oblique plane?
Passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane, sagittal or frontal plane
T/F
A section is one flat surface of a three-dimensional structure
True
Define superior
Toward the head, or upper part of structure
Define inferior
Away from the head, or lower part of structure
Define anterior
Nearer to or at the front of the body
Define posterior
Nearer to or at the back of the body
Define medial
Nearer to the midline
Define intermediate
Between 2 structures
Define Ipsilateral
On the same side of the body as another structure
Define Contralateral
On the opposite side of the body from another structure
Define proximal
Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk;nearer to the origination of a structure
Define Distal
Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure
Define superficial
Toward or on the surface of the body
Define Deep
Away from the surface of the body
What are the 2 major body cavities?
Dorsal and Ventral
T/F
Dorsal cavity has two subdivisions, the cranial cavity and vertebral canal
True
What is blood plasma?
ECF w/in blood vessels is termed blood plasma
What is lymph?
ECF w/in lymphatic vessels
What is cerebrospinal fluid?
ECF w/in the brain and spinal cord
What is synovial fluid?
ECF w/in joints
What is aqueous humor and vitreous body?
ECF in the eyes
T/F
Interstitial fluid surrounds all body cells and is called the body's internal environment
TRUE
What is extracellular fluid (ECF)?
Fluid outside the cell
What is "differentiation"?
Cell process of changing from unspecialized to specialized cell.
What is "Reproduction"?
Formationof new cells for tissue growth, repair, replacement or reproducing new "individual"
What are stem cells?
"Ancestor" cells that can undergo differentiation to become another type of cell
Define Homeostasis
Condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to regulatory processes
What is intracellular fluid (ICF)?
Fluid w/in cells
T/F
Dissolved in the water of ICF and ECF are oxygen, nutrients proteins, and a variety of ions
TRUE
The Musclar System consists of what?
Skeletal muscles
Tendons
The Skeletal system consists of what?
Bone
Cartilage
Joints
What is interstitial fluid?
Extracellular fluid (ECF) that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues
What is Anabolism?
Building up complex chemical substances from smaller,simpler ones
The Nervous System consists of what?
Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Name the 11 organ systems of the body
Integumentary
Muscular
Skeletal
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic & Immune
Respiratory
The Integumentary System consists of what?
Hair
Skin, sweat & oil glands
Fingernails
Define Gross anatomy
Structures that can be seen w/out microscope
What is palpation?
Feeling body surfaces w/hands
What is auscultation?
Listening to body sounds w/stethoscope or other instrument
What is percussion?
Tapping on the body surface to listen to the echo
List the 6 most important life processes of the human body.
Metabolism (Catabolism, Anabolism)
Responsiveness
Movement
Growth
Differentiation
Reproduction
What is metabolism?
Sum of all chemical processes in the body
What is Catabolism?
Breaking down complex chemical substances into smaller ones
What does "responsiveness" mean?
Body detects & responds to changes in internal/external environment
What is "movement"?
Movement includes motion of the whole body, indiviudal organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells
What is "growth"?
An increase in body size resulting from an increase in size of existing cells, no. of cells, material between cells
The Reproductive System does what?
Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes)
Gonads release hormones that regulate reproduction
Mammary glands provide nurishment for babies
Ovaries produce eggs for reproduction
Uterine/Fallopian tubes assist repro
Vagina is a birth canal (among other uses)
The Reproductive System is composed of what?
Gonads (testes/ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Epididymis
Ductus
Deferens
Penis
Define Exercise Physiology
Study of changes in cell and organ functions from exercising
Define Pathophysiology
Study of functional changes from disease and aging
Name the structural organization of the human body (lowest to highest)
Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
System
Organismal
T/F

Chemicals form cells, cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form systems and systems make up an organism
TRUE
The Endocrine System consists of what?
Hormone producing glands & hormone producing cells.
Pituitary gland
Pineal gland
Thyroid gland
Thymus
Adrenal gland
Pancreas
Ovary
Testis
The Lymphatic & Immune System consists of what?
Lymphatic fluid and vessels
Spleen
Thymus
Lymph nodes
Tonsils
The Cardiovascular system consists of what?
Blood and blood vessels
Heart
The Respiratory System consists of what?
Larynx (voice box)
Trachea (windpipe)
Pharyns
Bronchus
Lung
The Integumentary System does what?
Protects the body
Regulates body temp
Eliminates wastes
Makes Vit D
Detects sensations (touch, pain, warmth, cold)
The Muscular System does what?
Produces body movements
Stabilizes body position (posture)
Generates heat
The Skeletal system does what?
Supports and protects the body
Aids body movements
Houses cells that produce blood cells
Stores minerals and lipids (fats)
The Nervous System does what?
Generates nerve impulses that regulate body functions
Detects changes in internal/external environment
Interprets changes
Responds to change (muscular contractions/glandular secretions
The Endocrine System does what?
Releases hormones to regulates body activities
Hormones are chemical messengers
The Lymphatic system does what?
Returns proteins and fluid to blood
Carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood
Houses structures where lymphocytes mature and proliferate
The Cardiovascular System does what?
Heart pumps blood through vessels
Bld carries oxygen/nutrients to cells
Bld carries carbon dioxide/wastes away from cells
Blood regulates PH, temp, & water content of body fluids
Bld helps defend against disease& mend damaged bld vessels
The Respiratory System does what?
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to bld
and carbon dioside from bld to sxhaled air
Regulates PH of body fluids
Air flowing over vocal cords produces sound
The Digestive System consists of what?
Mouth
Salivary glands
Esophagus
Liver
Gallbladder
Large intestine
Small intestine
Anus
Stomach
Pancreas
The Digestive system does what?
Breaks down food
Absorbs nutrients
Eliminates solid wastes
The Urinary System does what?
Produces, stores, eliminates urine
Eliminates wastes
Regulates volume and chemical composition of bld
Maintains PH of body fluids
Maintains mineral balance
Regulates production of red bld cells
The Urinary system is composed of what?
Kidney
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Urethra
Define anatomy
Science of body structures & the relationships among structures
Define Physiology
Science of body functions
Define Embryology
Study of structures that emerge from ferterilized egg through 8th week in utero
Define Developmental biology
Study of structures that emerge from fertilized egg to adult form
Define Histology
Study of microscopic structures of tissues
Define Surface anatomy
Study of anatomical landmarks on body surface..through sight and feel (palpation)
Systemic anatomy
Study of body "systems" - nervous, respiratory, etc
Define Regional anatomy
Study of body regions, i.e. head, chest
Define radiographic anatomy
Study of body structures seen w/x-rays
Define pathological anatomy
Study of structural changes associated w/disease
Define Neurophysiology
Study of functional properties of nerve cells
Define endocrinology
Study of hormones & how they control body functions
Define Cardiovascular physiology
Study of functions of the heart & blood vessels
Define Immunology
Study of how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents
Define Respiratory physiology
Study of functions of the air passageways & lungs
Define Renal physiology
Study of function of kidneys