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47 Cards in this Set

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List three things that the cell is doing during interphase
Growing to mature size
Replicating
Preps to divide into two new cells
Does the cell's nucleus divide into two in mitosis.
yes
Does one copy of dna distribute into each daughter cell in mitosis.
yes
Does the cell make a copy of its dna in mitosis.
no
What happens during Prophase.
The chromatin in the nucleus condense to form chromosomes.Structures called spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell.The nuclear membranebreaks down.
What are the steps in Mitosis.
Prophase...Metaphase...Anaphase...And telophase.
What happens during Metaphase.
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere, which still holds the chromatids together.
What is the cell cycle
Interphase, Mitosis:Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
Cytokinesis.
What happens during Anaphase.
The centromeres split. The two chromatids separate. One chromatid moves along the spindle fiber to one end of the cell. The other chromatid moves to the opposite end. The cell becomes stretched out as the opposite ends pull apart.
What in the last stage in the cell cycle.
Cytokinesis
What happens during telophase.
The chromosomes begin to stretch out andlose teir rodlike appearence.This occurs in the two regions at the end of the cell. A new nuclear membrane forms around each region of chromosomes.
What happens during Cytokinesis
The cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
What happens during interphase
The cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its dna, and preps to divide.
What happens during Mitosis.
One copy of the DNA is distributed int each of the new daughter cells.
Name the nitrogen bases tha tpair up to make the rungs of the DNA ladder.
Thymine-Adenine
Guanine-Cytosine
What is DNA replication?
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
What happens during DNA replication?
The two sides of the DNA molecule unwind and seperate. Nitrogen bases floating in the nucleus pair up iwth the bases on each half of the DNA molecule. When the new bases are attached two new DNA molecules are formed.
What is cancer?
Cancer is a disease in which cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
What events cause cancer to begin?
A change in DNA affects the cell cycle. A cell divides too often.
What is a mutation?
A change in a gene or chromosome.
What is tumor?
A tumor is a mass of abnormal cells that develop when cancerous cells divid and grow uncontrollably.
Cancer spreads to other parts of the body when cancer cells enter the ...?
Bloodstream
How can a mutation affect the funtion of cells?
Damage to the DNA can cause cells to function abnormally.
List three ways in which doctors usually treat cancer.
Surgery to remove cancer. Radiation through a ray. Drugs that destroy the cancer cells.
Why is radiation used to treat cancer?
Radiation kills the faster growiing cells and are more likely to kill more.
Why is chemotherapy an effective way to treat cancer?
Chemotherapy is effective because the drugs spread throughout the body killing cancer cells or slowing their growth.
Name two things that can cause cancer.
Two things that can cause cancer is tobacco use or unhealthy diets.
What kind of diet can help lower a person's risk of some kind of cancer?
The kind of diet that can help lower a person's risk of some kind of cancer is a diet that includes lots of fruits, vegetables, and grain products.
When does cancer begin?
Cancer begins when mutation disrupts the normal cell cycle causing cells to divide in a uncontrolled way.
How can cancer spread from a tumore to other parts of the body?
Some of the cancerous cells may break off the tumor and enter the bloodstream. In this way, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body.
What is meiosis?
Meiosis is the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells, sperm, and eggs.
What is a punnett square?
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross. It occurs in meiosis.
Human body cells contain ... pairs, or ... chromosomes.
23, 46.
How are the genes lined up in a pair of chromosomes?
In the exact same order from one end of the chromosome to the other?
What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?
Genes carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.
Parent cells with four chromosomes are arranged in how many pairs?
2
Which stage of the cell cycle usually lasts longest?
Neither each cell cycle varies
During which stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?
Interphase
During which stage of the cell cycle does the cell membrane pinch the cell in two?
Cytokinesis
Regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
cell cycle
first stage of the cell cycle
interphase
process in which DNA is copied
replication
Stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides
mitosis
Doubled rod of condensed chromatin
chromosome
Each identical rod of a chromosome
Chromatid
Final stage of the cell cycle
cytokinesis
When does DNA replication begin?
When the two sides of the DNA molecule unwind and separate