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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sound of mitral and tricuspid valve closure
S1
sound of aortic and pulmonary valve closure
S2
sound at end of rapid ventricular filling
S3
sound from high atrial pressure/stiff ventricle
S4
what is S3 associated with?
dilated CHF, mitral/tricuspid regurgitation
what is S4 (atrial kick) associated with?
hypertrophic ventricle
what is paradoxical splitting associated with?
aortic stenosis, LBBB
what is fixed splitting associated with?
ASD
holosystolic high pitched 'blowing murmur' loudest at apex
mitral regurgitation
(tricuspid regurgitation)
cresecendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur following ejection click
aortic stenosis
(pulmonic stenosis)
pulsus parvus et tardus
pulses weak compared to heart sounds; seen in aortic stenosis
holosystolic murmur
VSD
late systolic murmur with midsystolic click
mitral prolapse
immediate high-pitched blowing diastolic murmur; wide pulse pressure
aortic regurgitation
delayed rubbing late diastolic murmur that follows opening snap
mitral stenosis
how does the murmur in tricuspid stenosis differ from that of mitral stenosis?
tricuspid stenosis differs because it gets louder with inspiration
continuous machine-like murmur
PDA
when is the murmur associated with a PDA loudest?
S2
what does the P wave on EKG represent?
atrial depolarization
what does the PR segment on EKG represent? how long is it normally?
conduction delay through AV node - normally <200 msec
what does the QRS complex represent? how long is it normally?
ventricular depolarization (<120 msec)
what does the QT interval represent?
mechanical contraction of the ventricles
what does the T wave represent?
ventricular repolarization
why don't you see atrial repolarization on EKG?
it is masked by the QRS complex
what causes a U wave?
hypokalemia